BackgroundCisplatin resistance is a major challenge for advanced head and neck cancer (HNC). Understanding the underlying mechanisms and developing effective strategies against cisplatin resistance are highly desired in the clinic. However, how tumor stroma modulates HNC growth and chemoresistance is unclear.ResultsWe show that cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are intrinsically resistant to cisplatin and have an active role in regulating HNC cell survival and proliferation by delivering functional miR-196a from CAFs to tumor cells via exosomes. Exosomal miR-196a then binds novel targets, CDKN1B and ING5, to endow HNC cells with cisplatin resistance. Exosome or exosomal miR-196a depletion from CAFs functionally restored HNC cisplatin sensitivity. Importantly, we found that miR-196a packaging into CAF-derived exosomes might be mediated by heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNPA1). Moreover, we also found that high levels of plasma exosomal miR-196a are clinically correlated with poor overall survival and chemoresistance.ConclusionsThe present study finds that CAF-derived exosomal miR-196a confers cisplatin resistance in HNC by targeting CDKN1B and ING5, indicating miR-196a may serve as a promising predictor of and potential therapeutic target for cisplatin resistance in HNC.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (10.1186/s13059-018-1604-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The poor viability of transplanted stem cells hampers their therapeutic efficacy for treatment of myocardial infarction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether rosuvastatin improved survival of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) after transplantation into infarcted hearts. AD-MSCs isolated from Tg(Fluc-egfp) mice which constitutively express both firefly luciferase (Fluc) and enhanced green fluorescent protein were transplanted into infarcted hearts with or without rosuvastatin administration. Longitudinal in vivo bioluminescence imaging and histological staining revealed that rosuvastatin enhanced the survival of engrafted AD-MSCs. Furthermore, combined therapy of AD-MSC and rosuvastatin reduced fibrosis, decreased cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and preserved heart function. AD-MSCs were then subjected to hypoxia and serum deprivation injury in vitro to mimic the ischemic environment. Rosuvastatin (10(-6) mmol/L) enhanced the viability and paracrine effect of AD-MSCs, and decreased their apoptotic rate. Western blotting revealed that rosuvastatin supplementation increased Akt and ERK phosphorylation, which resulted in FoxO3a phosphorylation and nuclear export. In addition, rosuvastatin administration decreased the pro-apoptotic proteins Bim and Bax, and increased the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xL and Bcl-2. Furthermore, these effects were abolished by PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126. This study demonstrates that rosuvastatin may improve the survival of engrafted AD-MSCs at least in part through the PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK1/2 signaling pathways. Combination therapy with rosuvastatin and AD-MSCs has a synergetic effect on improving myocardial function after infarction.
Background: The lncRNA LINC00460 plays crucial roles in several epithelial cancers, although its mechanisms of action differ greatly in different cellular contexts. In this study, we aimed to determine the potential clinical applications of LINC00460 and elucidate the mechanisms by which LINC00460 affects the development and progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Methods: The biological functions of LINC00460 were assessed in several epithelial cancer cell lines. The subcellular localization of LINC00460 was evaluated by cell nuclear/cytoplasmic fractionation and fluorescence in situ hybridization. RNA pull-down assays, LS-MS/MS analysis, and RNA and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were performed to identify the molecular mechanism by which LINC00460 promotes HNSCC progression. The clinical pathological features of LINC00460 and PRDX1 were evaluated in HNSCC tissues and paired adjacent normal tissues. Results: LINC00460 enhanced HNSCC cell proliferation and metastasis in vitro and in vivo and induced epithelialmesenchymal transition (EMT). LINC00460 primarily localized within the cytoplasm of HNSCC cells, physically interacted with PRDX1 and facilitated PRDX1 entry into the nucleus. PRDX1 promoted the transcription of LINC00460, forming a positive feedback loop. In addition, PRDX1 also promoted the transcription of EMT-related genes (such as ZEB1, ZEB2 and VIM) through enrichment on gene promoters in the nucleus. LINC00460 effectively induced HNSCC cell EMT in a PRDX1-dependent manner, and PRDX1 mainly mediated the EMT-promoting effect of LINC00460. High levels of LINC00460 and PRDX1 expression were positively associated with lymph metastasis, pathological differentiation and tumor size in HNSCC patients. Conclusions: LINC00460 promoted EMT in HNSCC cells by facilitating PRDX1 entry into the nucleus. LINC00460 and PRDX1 are promising candidate prognostic predictors and potential targets for cancer therapy for HNSCC.
Osteopontin (OPN), a chemokine-like protein, plays a crucial role in the proliferation and metastasis of various cancers. However, how tumor stroma modulates the expression of neoplastic OPN and the multifaceted roles of OPN in head and neck cancer (HNC) are unclear. In this study, we tried to investigate the bridging role of OPN between tumor stroma and cancer cells.Methods: Immunohistochemical staining and quantitative real-time PCR were used to detect OPN expression in HNC tissues, and the correlations between OPN expression and clinicopathologic features were then analyzed. We used a co-culture assay to study the modulatory role of IL-6 on OPN expression and immunoprecipitation analysis was used to determine the endogenous interaction between OPN and integrin αvβ3. Furthermore, a xenograft assay was carried out to confirm the tumor-promoting role and the potential therapeutic value of OPN in HNC.Results: We found that OPN was significantly up-regulated in HNCs, and the elevated OPN was correlated with poor prognosis. Moreover, we identified IL-6 secreted by cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) as the major upstream molecule that triggers the induction of neoplastic OPN. As such, during the interaction of fibroblasts and cancer cells, the increased neoplastic OPN induced by stromal IL-6 accelerated the growth, migration and invasion of cancer cells. More importantly, we also showed that soluble OPN could promote HNC progression via the integrin αvβ3-NF-kappa B pathway, and the combination of OPN and IL-6 had a better prognostic and diagnostic performance in HNC than either molecule alone.Conclusion: Our study identified a novel modulatory role for OPN in HNC progression and further demonstrated that the combination of OPN and IL-6 might be a promising prognostic and diagnostic indicator as well as a potential cancer therapeutic target.
The matrix-specific protein periostin (POSTN) is up-regulated in human cancers and associated with cancer growth, metastasis and angiogenesis. Although the stroma of cancer tissues is the main source of POSTN, it is still unclear how POSTN plays a role to facilitate the interplay between cancer cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in head and neck cancer (HNC), thereby promoting tumorigenesis via modifying the tumor microenvironment. Herein, we have performed studies to investigate POSTN and its role in HNC microenvironment. Our results indicated that POSTN was significantly up-regulated in HNCs, especially in the tissues with lymph node metastasis. Moreover, POSTN was highly enriched in the stroma of cancer tissues and produced mainly by CAFs. More importantly, we have pinpointed TGF-β3 as the major upstream molecular that triggers the induction of POSTN in CAFs. As such, during the interaction between fibroblasts and cancer cells, the increased stromal POSTN induced by TGF-β3 directly accelerated the growth, migration and invasion of cancer cells. Hence, our study has provided a novel modulative role for POSTN on HNC progression and further reveals POSTN as an effective biomarker to predict metastasis as well as a potential cancer therapeutic target.
Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation which plays a critical role in the development of cardiovascular dysfunction. Because the adaptor protein caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9) in macrophages regulates innate immune responses via activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, we hypothesize that CARD9 mediates the pro-inflammatory signaling associated with obesity en route to myocardial dysfunction. C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and CARD9−/− mice were fed normal diet (ND, 12% fat) or a high fat diet (HFD, 45% fat) for 5 months. At the end of 5-month HFD feeding, cardiac function was evaluated using echocardiography. Cardiomyocytes were isolated and contractile properties were measured. Immunofluorescence was performed to detect macrophage infiltration in the heart. Heart tissue homogenates, plasma, and supernatants from isolated macrophages were collected to measure the concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines using ELISA kits. Western immunoblotting analyses were performed on heart tissue homogenates and isolated macrophages to explore the underlying signaling mechanism(s). CARD9 knockout alleviated HFD-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, prevented myocardial dysfunction with preserved cardiac fractional shortening and cardiomyocyte contractile properties. CARD9 knockout also significantly decreased the number of infiltrated macrophages in the heart with reduced myocardium-, plasma-, and macrophage-derived cytokines including IL-6, IL-1β and TNFα. Finally, CARD9 knockout abrogated the increase of p38 MAPK phosphorylation, the decrease of LC3BII/LC3BI ratio and the up-regulation of p62 expression in the heart induced by HFD feeding and restored cardiac autophagy signaling. In conclusion, CARD9 knockout ameliorates myocardial dysfunction associated with HFD-induced obesity, potentially through reduction of macrophage infiltration, suppression of p38 MAPK phosphorylation, and preservation of autophagy in the heart.
Peroxisome, a special cytoplasmic organelle, possesses one or more kinds of oxidases for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and catalase for H2O2 degradation, which serves as an intracellular H2O2 regulator to degrade toxic peroxides to water. Inspired by this biochemical pathway, we demonstrate the reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced tumor therapy by integrating lactate oxidase (LOx) and catalase (CAT) into Fe3O4 nanoparticle/indocyanine green (ICG) co-loaded hybrid nanogels (designated as FIGs-LC). Based on the O2 redistribution and H2O2 activation by cascading LOx and CAT catalytic metabolic regulation, hydroxyl radical (·OH) and singlet oxygen (1O2) production can be modulated for glutathione (GSH)-activated chemodynamic therapy (CDT) and NIR-triggered photodynamic therapy (PDT), by manipulating the ratio of LOx and CAT to catalyze endogenous lactate to produce H2O2 and further cascade decomposing H2O2 into O2. The regulation reactions of FIGs-LC significantly elevate the intracellular ROS level and cause fatal damage to cancer cells inducing the effective inhibition of tumor growth. Such enzyme complex loaded hybrid nanogel present potential for biomedical ROS regulation, especially for the tumors with different redox state, size, and subcutaneous depth.
Background: Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the most effective anti-neoplastic drugs although its clinical use is limited by the severe cardiotoxicity. Apoptosis and defective autophagy are believed to contribute to DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Here we explored the effect of curcumin (Cur) on DOX-induced cardiac injury and the mechanism involved with a focus on oxidative stress, autophagy and pyroptosis.Methods: Kunming mice were challenged with DOX (3 mg•kg −1 , i.p. every other day) with cohorts of mice receiving Cur at 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg•kg −1 via gavage daily. Serum levels of cardiac enzymes, such as aspartate amino transferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), and heart homogenate oxidative stress markers, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined.Echocardiographic and cardiac contraction were examined. Apoptosis, pyroptosis, autophagy and Akt/mTORsignalling proteins were detected using western blot or electron microscopy. Cardiac contractile properties were assessed including peak shortening, maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening (± dL/dt), time-to-PS, and time-to-90% relengthening (TR90). Superoxide levels were evaluated using DHE staining. GFP-LC3 was conducted to measure autophagosomes.Results: Our study showed that Cur protected against cardiotoxicity manifested by a significant decrease in serum myocardial enzymes and improvement of anti-oxidative capacity. Cur inhibited autophagy and offered overt benefit for cardiomyocyte survive against DOX-induced toxicity. Cur attenuated DOX-induced cardiomyocyte pyroptosis as evidenced by NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3), Caspase-1, and interleukin-18 levels. DOX impaired cardiac function (reduced fractional shortening, ejection fraction, increased plasma cTnI level and TR90, decreased PS and ± dL/dt), the effects of which were overtly reconciled by 100 mg•kg −1 but not 50 mg•kg −1 Cur. H9c2 cells exposure to DOX displayed increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and autophagy, the effects of which were nullified by Cur.Autophagy activator rapamycin cancelled off Cur-induced protective effects.Conclusions: Our finding suggested that Cur rescued against DOX-induced cardiac injury probably through regulation of autophagy and pyroptosis in a mTOR-dependent manner.
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