We present a universal treatment for imposing superconformal constraints on Mellin amplitudes for SCFT d with 3 ≤ d ≤ 6. This leads to a new technique to compute holographic correlators, which is similar but complementary to the ones introduced in [1, 2]. We apply this technique to theories in various spacetime dimensions. In addition to reproducing known results, we obtain a simple expression for next-next-to-extremal fourpoint functions in AdS 7 × S 4 . We also use this machinery on AdS 4 × S 7 and compute the first holographic one-half BPS four-point function. We extract the anomalous dimension of the R-symmetry singlet double-trace operator with the lowest conformal dimension and find agreement with the 3d N = 8 numerical bootstrap bound at large central charge.
GATA transcription factors are transcriptional regulatory proteins that contain a characteristic type-IV zinc finger DNA-binding domain and recognize the conserved GATA motif in the promoter sequence of target genes. Previous studies demonstrated that plant GATA factors possess critical functions in developmental control and responses to the environment. To date, the GATA factors in soybean (Glycine max) have yet to be characterized. Thus, this study identified 64 putative GATA factors from the entire soybean genomic sequence. The chromosomal distributions, gene structures, duplication patterns, phylogenetic tree, tissue expression patterns, and response to low nitrogen stress of the 64 GATA factors in soybean were analyzed to further investigate the functions of these factors. Results indicated that segmental duplication predominantly contributed to the expansion of the GATA factor gene family in soybean. These GATA proteins were phylogenetically clustered into four distinct subfamilies, wherein their gene structure and motif compositions were considerably conserved. A comparative phylogenetic analysis of the GATA factor zinc finger domain sequences in soybean, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and rice (Oryza sativa) revealed four major classes. The GATA factors in soybean exhibited expression diversity among different tissues; some of these factors showed tissue-specific expression patterns. Numerous GATA factors displayed upregulation or downregulation in soybean leaf in response to low nitrogen stress, and two GATA factors GATA44 and GATA58 were likely to be involved in the regulation of nitrogen metabolism in soybean. Overexpression of GmGATA44 complemented the reduced chlorophyll phenotype of the Arabidopsis ortholog AtGATA21 mutant, implying that GmGATA44 played an important role in modulating chlorophyll biosynthesis. Overall, our study provides useful information for the further analysis of the biological functions of GATA factors in soybean and other crops.
Improved soybean cultivars have been adapted to grow at a wide range of latitudes, enabling expansion of cultivation worldwide. However, the genetic basis of this broad adaptation is still not clear. Here, we report the identification of GmPRR3b as a major flowering time regulatory gene that has been selected during domestication and genetic improvement for geographic expansion. Through a genome-wide association study of a diverse soybean landrace panel consisting of 279 accessions, we identified 16 candidate quantitative loci associated with flowering time and maturity time. The strongest signal resides in the known flowering gene E2, verifying the effectiveness of our approach. We detected strong signals associated with both flowering and maturity time in a genomic region containing GmPRR3b. Haplotype analysis revealed that GmPRR3b H6 is the major form of GmPRR3b that has been utilized during recent breeding of modern cultivars. mRNA profiling analysis showed that GmPRR3b H6 displays rhythmic and photoperioddependent expression and is preferentially induced under long-day conditions. Overexpression of GmPRR3b H6 increased main stem node number and yield, while knockout of GmPRR3b H6 using CRISPR/ Cas9 technology delayed growth and the floral transition. GmPRR3b H6 appears to act as a transcriptional repressor of multiple predicted circadian clock genes, including GmCCA1a, which directly upregulates J/GmELF3a to modulate flowering time. The causal SNP (Chr12:5520945) likely endows GmPRR3b H6 a moderate but appropriate level of activity, leading to early flowering and vigorous growth traits preferentially selected during broad adaptation of landraces and improvement of cultivars.
Background The plant architecture has significant effects on grain yield of various crops, including soybean ( Glycine max ), but the knowledge on optimization of plant architecture in order to increase yield potential is still limited. Recently, CRISPR/Cas9 system has revolutionized genome editing, and has been widely utilized to edit the genomes of a diverse range of crop plants. Results In the present study, we employed the CRISPR/Cas9 system to mutate four genes encoding SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) transcription factors of the SPL9 family in soybean. These four GmSPL9 genes are negatively regulated by GmmiR156b , a target for the improvement of soybean plant architecture and yields. The soybean Williams 82 was transformed with the binary CRISPR/Cas9 plasmid, assembled with four sgRNA expression cassettes driven by the Arabidopsis thaliana U3 or U6 promoter, targeting different sites of these four SPL9 genes via Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation. A 1-bp deletion was detected in one target site of the GmSPL9a and one target site of the GmSPL9b , respectively, by DNA sequencing analysis of two T0-generation plants. T2-generation spl9a and spl9b homozygous single mutants exhibited no obvious phenotype changes; but the T2 double homozygous mutant spl9a / spl9b possessed shorter plastochron length. In T4 generation, higher-order mutant plants carrying various combinations of mutations showed increased node number on the main stem and branch number, consequently increased total node number per plants at different levels. In addition, the expression levels of the examined GmSPL9 genes were higher in the spl9b-1 single mutant than wild-type plants, which might suggest a feedback regulation on the expression of the investigated GmSPL9 genes in soybean. Conclusions Our results showed that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeted mutagenesis of four GmSPL9 genes in different combinations altered plant architecture in soybean. The findings demonstrated that GmSPL9a, GmSPL9b, GmSPL9c and GmSPL9 function as redundant transcription factors in regulating plant architecture in soybean. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s12870-019-1746-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Root nodule symbiosis (RNS) is one of the most productive and economical systems for nitrogen fixation, and previous studies have shown that several nodule-specific C2H2-zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) play important roles in symbiosis establishment and nodule function. However, C2H2-ZFPs are the most widespread ZFPs in eukaryotes, and a great variation of structure and function exist among the family members. It remains largely unclear whether or not special types of C2H2-ZF genes participate in symbiosis, especially in soybean. In the present study, we performed a genome-wide survey of soybean C2H2-ZF genes, and 321 soybean C2H2-ZF genes were identified and classified into 11 clearly distinguishable subsets (Gm-t1-SF, Gm-t2-SF, Gm-1i-Q-SF, Gm-1i-M-SF, Gm-1i-Z-SF, Gm-1i-D-SF, Gm-2i-Q-SF, Gm-2i-M-SF, Gm-2i-Mix-SF, Gm-3i-SF, and Gm-4i-SF) based on the arrangements, numbers, and types of C2H2-ZF domains. Phylogenetic and gene ontology analyses were carried out to assess the conserved sequence and GO function among these subsets, and the results showed that the classification of soybean C2H2-ZFPs was reasonable. The expression profile of soybean C2H2-ZFPs in multiple tissues showed that nearly half of soybean C2H2-ZFPs within different subsets had expressions in nodules, including a clustering branch consisting of 11 Gm-1i-Q-SF genes specifically expressed in symbiotic-relative tissues. RNA-Seq was used to identify symbiosis-related soybean C2H2-ZFPs, and the expression pattern of the soybean C2H2-ZFPs in roots and nodules at different development stages showed that soybean C2H2-ZFPs mainly played roles in nodule development or nodule function rather than nodulation signal transduction, and nearly half of these genes had high expressions and/or different expression patterns during soybean nodule development, especially for the six clustering branches of genes consisting of different subsets of C2H2-ZFPs. Furthermore, the selected symbiosis-related soybean C2H2-ZFPs might function in legume-rhizobium symbiosis through regulating or interacting with other key proteins. Taken together, our findings provided useful information for the study on classification and conservative function of C2H2-ZFPs, and offered solid evidence for investigation of rhizobium symbiosis-related C2H2-ZFPs in soybean or other legumes.
The root nodule symbiosis (RNS) between legume plants and rhizobia is the most efficient and productive source of nitrogen fixation, and has critical importance in agriculture and mesology. Soybean (Glycine max), one of the most important legume crops in the world, establishes a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with different types of rhizobia, and the efficiency of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in soybean greatly depends on the symbiotic host-specificity. Although, it has been reported that rhizobia use surface polysaccharides, secretion proteins of the type-three secretion systems and nod factors to modulate host range, the host control of nodulation specificity remains poorly understood. In this report, the soybean roots of two symbiotic systems (Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain 113-2-soybean and Sinorhizobium fredii USDA205-soybean)with notable different nodulation phenotypes and the control were studied at five different post-inoculation time points (0.5, 7–24 h, 5, 16, and 21 day) by RNA-seq (Quantification). The results of qPCR analysis of 11 randomly-selected genes agreed with transcriptional profile data for 136 out of 165 (82.42%) data points and quality assessment showed that the sequencing library is of quality and reliable. Three comparisons (control vs. 113-2, control vs. USDA205 and USDA205 vs. 113-2) were made and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between them were analyzed. The number of DEGs at 16 days post-inoculation (dpi) was the highest in the three comparisons, and most of the DEGs in USDA205 vs. 113-2 were found at 16 dpi and 21 dpi. 44 go function terms in USDA205 vs. 113-2 were analyzed to evaluate the potential functions of the DEGs, and 10 important KEGG pathway enrichment terms were analyzed in the three comparisons. Some important genes induced in response to different strains (113-2 and USDA205) were identified and analyzed, and these genes primarily encoded soybean resistance proteins, NF-related proteins, nodulins and immunity defense proteins, as well as proteins involving flavonoids/flavone/flavonol biosynthesis and plant-pathogen interaction. Besides, 189 candidate genes are largely expressed in roots and\or nodules. The DEGs uncovered in this study provides molecular candidates for better understanding the mechanisms of symbiotic host-specificity and explaining the different symbiotic effects between soybean roots inoculated with different strains (113-2 and USDA205).
Genomic selection is a promising molecular breeding strategy enhancing genetic gain per unit time. The objectives of our study were to (1) explore the prediction accuracy of genomic selection for plant height and yield per plant in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], (2) discuss the relationship between prediction accuracy and numbers of markers, and (3) evaluate the effect of marker preselection based on different methods on the prediction accuracy. Our study is based on a population of 235 soybean varieties which were evaluated for plant height and yield per plant at multiple locations and genotyped by 5361 single nucleotide polymorphism markers. We applied ridge regression best linear unbiased prediction coupled with fivefold cross-validations and evaluated three strategies of marker preselection. For plant height, marker density and marker preselection procedure impacted prediction accuracy only marginally. In contrast, for grain yield, prediction accuracy based on markers selected with a haplotype block analyses-based approach increased by approximately 4 % compared with random or equidistant marker sampling. Thus, applying marker preselection based on haplotype blocks is an interesting option for a cost-efficient implementation of genomic selection for grain yield in soybean breeding.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11032-016-0504-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers