Although genomic instability, epigenetic abnormality, and gene expression dysregulation are hallmarks of colorectal cancer, these features have not been simultaneously analyzed at single-cell resolution. Using optimized single-cell multiomics sequencing together with multiregional sampling of the primary tumor and lymphatic and distant metastases, we developed insights beyond intratumoral heterogeneity. Genome-wide DNA methylation levels were relatively consistent within a single genetic sublineage. The genome-wide DNA demethylation patterns of cancer cells were consistent in all 10 patients whose DNA we sequenced. The cancer cells’ DNA demethylation degrees clearly correlated with the densities of the heterochromatin-associated histone modification H3K9me3 of normal tissue and those of repetitive element long interspersed nuclear element 1. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of reconstructing genetic lineages and tracing their epigenomic and transcriptomic dynamics with single-cell multiomics sequencing.
The development of the digestive tract is critical for proper food digestion and nutrient absorption. Here, we analyse the main organs of the digestive tract, including the oesophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine, from human embryos between 6 and 25 weeks of gestation as well as the large intestine from adults using single-cell RNA-seq analyses. In total, 5,227 individual cells are analysed and 40 cell types clearly identified. Their crucial biological features, including developmental processes, signalling pathways, cell cycle, nutrient digestion and absorption metabolism, and transcription factor networks, are systematically revealed. Moreover, the differentiation and maturation processes of the large intestine are thoroughly investigated by comparing the corresponding transcriptome profiles between embryonic and adult stages. Our work offers a rich resource for investigating the gene regulation networks of the human fetal digestive tract and adult large intestine at single-cell resolution.
Numerous studies showed that drug resistance of gastric cancer cells could be modulated by the abnormal expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) which target multiple cell signaling pathways. The possible function of miR-1271 in the formation of cisplatin resistance in gastric cancer cells has been investigated in this study. miR-1271 was significantly down-regulated in gastric cancer tissues and various gastric cancer cell lines. Moreover, it was down-regulated in the cisplatin-resistant gastric cancer cell line SGC7901/cisplatin (DDP) and the down-regulation of miR-1271 in SGC7901/DPP cells was accompanied by the up-regulation of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R)/insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) pathway-related proteins, i.e., IGF1R, IRS1, serine/threonine-protein kinase mTOR (mTOR), and the apoptosis regulator Bcl-2 (BCL2), compared with the parental SGC7901 cells. Over-expression of miR-1271 sensitized SGC7901/DDP cells to cisplatin. Changes in the luciferase activity of reporter constructs harboring the 3'-untranslated region of the above proteins in SGC7901/DDP cells suggested that IGF1R, IRS1, mTOR, and BCL2 were target genes of miR-1271. Enforced miR-1271 expression repressed the protein levels of its targets, inhibited proliferation of SGC7901/DDP cells, and sensitized SGC7901/DDP cells to DDP-induced apoptosis. Overall, on the basis of the results of our study, we proposed that miR-1271 could regulate cisplatin resistance in human gastric cancer cells, at least partially, via targeting the IGF1R/IRS1 pathway.
The ring finger protein 8 (RNF8), a key component of protein complex crucial for DNA-damage response, consists of a forkhead-associated (FHA) domain and a really interesting new gene (RING) domain that enables it to function as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. However, the biological functions of RNF8 in estrogen receptor α (ERα)-positive breast cancer and underlying mechanisms have not been fully defined. Here, we have explored RNF8 as an associated partner of ERα in breast cancer cells, and co-activates ERα-mediated transactivation. Accordingly, RNF8 depletion inhibits the expression of endogenous ERα target genes. Interestingly, our results have demonstrated that RNF8 increases ERα stability at least partially if not all via triggering ERα monoubiquitination. RNF8 functionally promotes breast cancer cell proliferation. RNF8 is highly expressed in clinical breast cancer samples and the expression of RNF8 positively correlates with that of ERα. Up-regulation of ERα-induced transactivation by RNF8 might contribute to the promotion of breast cancer progression by allowing enhancement of ERα target gene expression. Our study describes RNF8 as a co-activator of ERα increases ERα stability via post-transcriptional pathway, and provides a new insight into mechanisms for RNF8 to promote cell growth of ERα-positive breast cancer.
Abstract. microRNAs (miRs) are endogenous small noncoding RNAs that are aberrantly expressed in various carcinomas. miR-152 and miR-148a have not been comprehensively investigated in ovarian cancer. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the role of miR-152 and miR-148a in epithelial ovarian cancer. Total RNA was extracted from tissues of 78 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, 17 normal ovarian epithelium tissues and two ovarian cancer cell lines. Using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) followed by the 2 -ΔΔCT method for calculating the results, we found that the expression levels of miR-152 were significantly decreased in ovarian cancer tissues compared to normal ovarian epithelium tissues (p<0.05). However, although the expression of miR148a was also decreased in 65% of patients, no statistically significant difference in expression was found. A strong correlation was found between the expression of miR-152 and miR-148a (p<0.001, Pearson's correlation). The relationship between miR-152 or miR-148a expression levels in ovarian cancer and clinicopathological features, response to therapy and short-term survival was analyzed and the results showed that no correlation existed. In addition, we found that both miR-152 and miR-148a were down-regulated in ovarian cancer cell lines. After miR-152 or miR-148a mimics were transfected into ovarian cancer cell lines, the MTT cell proliferation assay showed that cell proliferation was significantly inhibited. Taken together, miR-152 and miR-148a may be involved in the carcinogenesis of ovarian cancer through deregulation of cell proliferation. They may be novel biomarkers for early detection or therapeutic targets of ovarian cancer. IntroductionOvarian cancer is one of the most common causes of death from gynecological malignancies. In addition, with an incidence of ~15,000 deaths annually, it is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women in the United States (1). More than 90% of ovarian cancers are epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs), which are derived from the ovarian surface epithelium (2). Due to a lack of effective biomarkers, ineffective tools for ovarian cancer screening, and non-specific symptoms in its early stages, more than two-thirds of patients with ovarian cancer are not diagnosed until the disease is in an advanced stage (3). Despite advances in early detection and the current standard treatment for advanced ovarian cancer, the 5-year survival rate is only 20-25% (4,5), which makes the development of alternative approaches urgent. Understanding the molecular alterations of ovarian cancer will help identify novel diagnostic markers or therapeutic targets, thereby improving the survival rates in this population of cancer patients.microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are a class of highly conserved, non-coding RNAs, approximately 19-25 nucleotides in length. They function as post-transcriptional regulators by binding to the 3'UTR regions of protein-encoding genes, which results in translational repression and gene silencing (6,7). Almost 30% ...
In this study, a novel Al 18 F-NOTA-FAPI probe was developed for fibroblast activation protein (FAP) targeted tumour imaging, which was available to achieve curie level radioactivity by automatic synthesizer. The tumour detection efficacy of Al 18 F-NOTA-FAPI was further validated both in preclinical and clinical translational studies. MethodsThe radiolabeling procedure of Al 18 F-NOTA-FAPI was optimized. Cell uptake and competitive binding assay were completed with U87MG and A549 cell lines, to evaluate the affinity and specificity of Al 18 F-NOTA-FAPI probe. The biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, radiation dosimetry and tumour imaging efficacy of Al 18 F-NOTA-FAPI probe were researched with healthy Kunming (KM) and/or U87MG model mice.After the approval of ethical committee, Al 18 F-NOTA-FAPI probe was translated into clinical for the PET/CT imaging of first 10 cancer patients. ResultsThe radiolabeling yield of Al 18 F-NOTA-FAPI was 33.8 ± 3.2% through manually operation (n = 10), with the radiochemical purity over than 99% and the specific activity of 9.3-55.5 MBq/nmol. Whole body effective dose of Al 18 F-NOTA-FAPI was estimated to be 1.24E-02 mSv/MBq, lower than several other FAPI probes ( 68 Ga-FAPI-04, 68 Ga-FAPI-46 and 68 Ga-FAPI-74). In U87MG tumour bearing mice, Al 18 F-NOTA-FAPI showed good tumor detection efficacy from the results of micro PET/CT imaging and biodistribution studies. In organ biodistribution study of human patients, Al 18 F-NOTA-FAPI showed lower SUVmean than 2-[ 18 F]FDG in most organs, especially in liver (1.1 ± 0.2 vs. 2.0 ± 0.9), brain (0.1 ± 0.0 vs. 5.9 ± 1.3), and bone marrow (0.9 ± 0.1 vs. 1.7 ± 0.4). Meanwhile, Al 18 F-NOTA-FAPI do not show extensive bone uptakes, and was able to find out more tumour lesions than 2-[ 18 F]FDG in the PET/CT imaging of several patients. ConclusionAl 18 F-NOTA-FAPI probe was successfully fabricated and applied in fibroblast activation protein targeted tumour PET/CT imaging, which showed excellent imaging quality and tumour detection efficacy in U87MG tumour bearing mice as well as in human cancer patients.
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