BackgroundAcute coronary syndrome (ACS) consists of a range of acute myocardial ischemia-related manifestations. The adverse events of ACS are usually associated with ventricular dysfunction (VD), which could finally develop to heart failure. Currently, there is no satisfactory indicator that could specifically predict the development of ACS and its prognosis. Valosin-containing protein (VCP) has recently been proposed to protect against cardiac diseases. Hence, we aimed to assess whether VCP in serum can serve as a valuable biomarker for predicting ACS and its complication.MethodsHuman serum samples from 291 participants were collected and classified into four groups based on their clinical diagnosis, namely healthy control (n = 64), ACS (n = 40), chronic coronary syndrome (CCS, n = 99), and nonischemic heart disease (non-IHD, n = 88). Clinical characteristics of these participants were recorded and their serum VCP levels were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Association of serum VCP with the development of ACS and its complication VD was statistically studied. Subsequently, GWAS and eQTL analyses were performed to explore the association between VCP polymorphism and monocyte count. A stability test was also performed to investigate whether VCP is a stable biomarker.ResultsSerum VCP levels were significantly higher in the ACS group compared with the rest groups. Besides, the VCP levels of patients with ACS with VD were significantly lower compared to those without VD. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that VCP was associated with both the risk of ACS (P = 0.042, OR = 1.222) and the risk of developing VD in patients with ACS (P = 0.035, OR = 0.513) independently. The GWAS analysis also identified an association between VCP polymorphism (rs684562) and monocyte count, whereas the influence of rs684562 on VCP mRNA expression level was further verified by eQTL analysis. Moreover, a high stability of serum VCP content was observed under different preservation circumstances.ConclusionValosin-containing protein could act as a stable biomarker in predicting the development of ACS and its complication VD.
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