Flexible organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) hold great promise for future bendable display and curved lighting applications. One key challenge of high-performance flexible OLEDs is to develop new flexible transparent conductive electrodes with superior mechanical, electrical, and optical properties. Herein, an effective nanostructured metal/dielectric composite electrode on a plastic substrate is reported by combining a quasi-random outcoupling structure for broadband and angle-independent light outcoupling of white emission with an ultrathin metal alloy film for optimum optical transparency, electrical conduction, and mechanical flexibility. The microcavity effect and surface plasmonic loss can be remarkably reduced in white flexible OLEDs, resulting in a substantial increase in the external quantum efficiency and power efficiency to 47.2% and 112.4 lm W(-1).
perovskite materials.  Since 2009, rapid progress has been made on the performance of methylammonium lead halide perovskite (CH 3 NH 3 PbX 3 , X = Cl, Br, I)based PeSCs with a substantial increase in power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 3.8% to a stunning value of more than 22%.  Typically, a PeSC is composed of a perovskite absorber layer sandwiched between the hole and the electron transport layers (HTLs and ETLs, respectively).  Upon the absorption of incident light, carriers will generate in the perovskite absorber and transport to HTL or ETL, and finally are collected by the corresponding electrodes. To achieve highly efficient and low-cost PeSCs, great efforts have been devoted to optimizing the perovskite material design, device structures and relevant processing techniques.  Apart from the major emphasis on perovskite film processing and interface modification for efficient charge collection, it is still of great challenges to achieve maximum light trapping within the devices and then make the majority of incident light for photoelectric conversion. For instance, the photocurrent density of the reported PeSCs were still lower than the theoretical one of ≈26 mA cm −2 ,  indicating that quite a large fraction of incident light still remains unused for photocurrent generation. The increased physical thickness of the perovskite absorber allows for better light absorption, which however certainly reduces the charge collection efficiency due to the increased recombination current. To alleviate this contradiction, light-trapping schemes are imperative for effectively enhancing light harvesting efficiencies in PeSCs by increasing the internal scattering and absorption of incident light with lower recombination currents.To date, numerous light manipulation strategies using periodic or random structures have been proposed such as plasmonic structures,  microlens array,  metal nanoparticles,  aperiodic arrays,  microresonators,  and optical cavities. [24,25] By introducing these schemes to the appropriate interfaces in thin-film solar cells, light absorption can be effectively enhanced by guiding and retaining the incident light through the enhancement of optical path length or the spatial redistribution of light intensity due to surface plasmon resonances (SPRs). Nevertheless, most of these schemes are limited for the practical adoption in large-area solar cell fabrication
Light management holds great promise of realizing high-performance perovskite solar cells by improving the sunlight absorption with lower recombination current and thus higher power conversion efficiency (PCE). Here, a convenient and scalable light trapping scheme is demonstrated by incorporating bioinspired moth-eye nanostructures into the metal back electrode via soft imprinting technique to enhance the light harvesting in organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite solar cells. Comparedto the flat reference cell with a methylammonium le...
Inverted organic light-emitting diode (OLED) has attracted extensive attention due to the demand in active-matrix OLED display panels as its geometry enables the direct connection with n-channel transistor backplane on the substrate. One key challenge of high-performance inverted OLED is an efficient electron-injection layer with superior electrical and optical properties to match the indium tin oxide cathode on substrate. We here propose a synergistic electron-injection architecture using surface modification of ZnO layer to simultaneously promote electron injection into organic emitter and enhance out-coupling of waveguided light. An efficient inverted white OLED is realized by introducing the nanoimprinted aperiodic nanostructure of ZnO for broadband and angle-independent light out-coupling and inserting an n-type doped interlayer for energy level tuning and injection barrier lowering. As a result, the optimized inverted white OLEDs have an external quantum efficiency of 42.4% and a power efficiency of 85.4 lm W, which are accompanied by the superiority of angular color stability over the visible wavelength range. Our results may inspire a promising approach to fabricate high-efficiency inverted OLEDs for large-scale display panels.
Modified crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) with appreciably enhanced DC electrical insulation properties has been developed by chemical modification of grafting chloroacetic acid allyl ester (CAAE), exploring the trapping mechanism of charge transport inhibition. The bound state traps deriving from grafted molecule are analyzed by first-principles calculations, in combination with the electrical DC conductivity and dielectric breakdown strength experiments to study the underlying mechanism of improving the electrical insulation properties. In contrast to pure XLPE, the XLPE-graft-CAAE represents significantly suppressed space charge accumulation, increased breakdown strength, and reduced conductivity. The substantial deep traps are generated in XLPE-graft-CAAE molecules by polar group of grafted CAAE and accordingly decrease charge mobility and raise charge injection barrier, consequently suppressing space charge accumulation and charge carrier transport. The well agreement of experiments and quantum mechanics calculations suggests a prospective material modification strategy for achieving high-voltage polymer dielectric materials without nanotechnology difficulties as for nanodielectrics.
The general longitudinal palmar incision could avoid injuries to recurrent branch of median nerve and distal branches of palmar cutaneous nerve can be avoided macroscopically. The area about 5 mm ulnar and 6 mm radial to 0 point at wrist level was a relatively safe area.
This study was conducted to observe the characteristics of the risk factors of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in Chinese population. CTS of 1,512 outpatients aged 41–70 years were without any other diseases which could cause numbness as a case group, and 4,536 non-CTS outpatients as a control group were involved in the study in 2013–2014. Both groups received a questionnaire and the case group received another electrical physiological examination. The results showed the odds ratio (OR) of age is 0.990 (95% CI, 0.984–0.996). The OR of BMI is 1.096 (95% CI, 1.077–1.115). The OR of smoking is 4.862 (95% CI, 3.991–5.925). The OR of wrist injury is 1.313 (95% CI, 1.019–1.691). The OR of diabetes mellitus is 1.837 (95% CI, 1.557–2.168). The OR of hypertension is 0.805 (95% CI, 0.688–0.942). The OR of hypothyroidism is 1.385 (95% CI, 1.119–1.715). The OR of rheumatic disease is 4.450 (95% CI, 3.712–5.215). The results showed that sex, age, smoking, wrist injury, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism and wrist working are all risk factors of CTS. Hypertension could be a protection factor of CTS in early phase but will increase the risk in a long-term high blood pressure. Smoking, alcohol and diabetes mellitus can be predictors of moderate and severe CTS.
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