Inflammation is one of main mechanisms of autoimmune disorders and a common feature of most diseases. Appropriate suppression of inflammation is a key resolution to treat the diseases. Sirtuin1 (Sirt1) has been shown to play a role in regulation of inflammation. Resveratrol, a potent Sirt1 activator, has anti-inflammation property. However, the detailed mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammation role of Sirt1 in NIH/3T3 fibroblast cell line. Upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases 9 (MMP-9), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), IL-6 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in 3T3 cells and resveratrol suppressed overexpression of these pro-inflammatory molecules in a dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of Sirt1 by RNA interference caused 3T3 cells susceptible to TNF-α stimulation and diminished anti-inflammatory effect of resveratrol. We also explored potential anti-inflammatory mechanisms of resveratrol. Resveratrol reduced NF-κB subunit RelA/p65 acetylation, which is notably Sirt1 dependent. Resveratrol also attenuated phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and S6 ribosomal protein (S6RP) while ameliorating inflammation. Our data demonstrate that resveratrol inhibits TNF-α-induced inflammation via Sirt1. It suggests that Sirt1 is an efficient target for regulation of inflammation. This study provides insight on treatment of inflammation-related diseases.
BackgroundThe metastasis-associated gene 1 (MTA1) has been identified as one critical regulator of tumor metastasis. Previously, we identified miR-125b as a downregualted miRNA in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line upon MTA1 depletion. However, the role of miR-125b and MTA1 in the regulation of NSCLC metastasis remains unclear.MethodsStable MTA1 knockdown NSCLC cell lines 95D and SPC-A-1 were established by transfection with MTA1 shRNA. The effects of MTA1 depletion on the expression of miR-125b and cell migration and invasion were examined by real-time PCR, wound healing and matrigel invasion assay.ResultsMTA1 knockdown led to the upregulation of miR-125b level in NSCLC cells. Furthermore, MTA1 knockdown reduced while miR-125b inhibitor enhanced cell migration and invasion of NSCLC cells. Notably, miR-125b inhibitor antagonized MTA1 siRNA induced inhibition of cell migration and invasion.ConclusionMTA1 and miR-125b have antagonistic effects on the migration and invasion of NSCLC cells. The newly identified MTA1-miR-125b axis will help further elucidate the molecular mechanism of NSCLC progression and suggest that ectopic expression of miR-125b is a potentially new therapeutic regimen against NSCLC metastasis.
Upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase MMP-14 (MT1-MMP) is associated with poor prognosis in cancer patients, but it is unclear how MMP-14 becomes elevated in tumors. Here we show that miR-181a-5p is downregulated in aggressive human breast and colon cancers where its levels correlate inversely with MMP-14 expression. In clinical specimens, enhanced expression of MMP-14 was observed in cancer cells located at the invasive front of tumors where miR-181a-5p was downregulated relative to adjacent normal cells. Bioinformatics analyses defined a potential miR-181a-5p response element within the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of MMP-14 that was validated in reporter gene experiments. Ectopic miR-181a-5p reduced MMP-14 expression, whereas miR-181a-5p attenuation elevated MMP-14 expression. In support of a critical relationship between these two genes, miR-181a-5p-mediated reduction of MMP-14 levels was sufficient to decrease cancer cell migration, invasion and activation of pro-MMP-2. Further, this reduction in MMP-14 levels was sufficient to reduce in vivo invasion and angiogenesis in chick chorioallantoic membrane assays. Taken together, our results establish the regulation of MMP-14 in cancers by miR-181a-5p through a post-transcriptional mechanism, and they further suggest strategies to elevate miR-181a-5p to prevent cancer metastasis.
BackgroundOral mucositis is probably the most debilitating complication that can arise in treating a patient with head and neck cancer. Little is known about the impacts of oral microbiota on the initiation and progression of mucositis.MethodsBased on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, dynamic changes in oral bacterial profile as well as correlations between the severity of mucositis and bacterial shifts during radiotherapy were investigated.FindingsOur results revealed that bacterial community structure altered progressively during radiation therapy, in parallel with a marked increase in the relative abundance of some Gram-negative bacteria. Patients who eventually developed severe mucositis harbored a significantly lower bacterial alpha diversity and higher abundance of Actinobacillus during the phase of erythema – patchy mucositis. Accordingly, a random forest model for predicting exacerbation of mucositis was generated, which achieved a high predictive accuracy (AUC) of 0.89.InterpretationOral microbiota changes correlate with the progression and aggravation of radiotherapy-induced mucositis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Microbiota-based strategies can be used for the early prediction and prevention of the incidence of severe mucositis during radiotherapy.
A growing body of evidence has investigated the association between maternal exposure to PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter 2.5 μm) during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, the results of those studies are not consistent. To synthetically quantify the relationship between maternal exposure to PM2.5 during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes (the change in birth weight, low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth (PTB), small for gestational age (SGA), and stillbirth), a meta-analysis of 25 published observational epidemiological studies that met our selection criteria was conducted. Results suggested a 10 μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 was positively associated with LBW (odds ratio (OR) = 1.05; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.07), PTB (OR = 1.10; 95 % CI, 1.03-1.18), and SGA (OR = 1.15; 95 % CI, 1.10-1.20) based on entire pregnancy exposure, and pooled estimate of decrease in birth weight was 14.58 g (95 % CI, 9.86-19.31); however, there was no evidence of a statistically significant effect of per 10 μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 exposure on the risk of stillbirth (OR = 1.18; 95 % CI, 0.69-2.04). With respect to three different gestation periods, no significant risks were found in PTB, stillbirth, and the first trimester on the change of birth weight with a 10 μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5. In this study, a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the results show that PM2.5 can increase the risk of LBW, PTB, and SGA; pregnant women need to take effective measures to reduce PM2.5 exposure.
Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) are both activated after traumatic brain injury (TBI), however complex interplay between the two hampers deciphering their functional implications in vivo. We examined the effects of single and combination inhibitors of Akt/mTOR in a mouse controlled cortical impact (CCI) model. Following CCI, phospho-Akt-473 (p-Akt) and -S6 ribosomal protein (p-S6RP), a downstream substrate of mTOR, were increased in cortical and hippocampal brain homogenates (P<0.05 versus sham). At 24 hours, p-S6RP was detected in neurons and was robustly induced in microglia and astrocytes in injured hippocampus. In vivo activity of Akt and mTOR inhibitors administered separately was confirmed by reduced expression of p-GSK3β (P<0.01) or p-S6RP (P<0.05), respectively, after CCI. Importantly, administration of Akt and mTOR inhibitors together (but not of either alone) improved postinjury motor (P=0.02) and cognitive deficits (hidden platform trials, P=0.001; probe trials, P<0.05), decreased propidium iodide-positive cells in CA1 and CA3 (P<0.005), and unexpectedly increased p-GSK3β in hippocampus. Although the roles of Akt and mTOR in the pathogenesis of TBI remain to be fully elucidated, dual inhibition of Akt and mTOR may have therapeutic potential for TBI.
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and Fas receptor contribute to cell death and cognitive dysfunction after focal traumatic brain injury (TBI). We examined the role of TNFα/Fas in postinjury functional outcome independent of cell death in a novel closed head injury (CHI) model produced with weight drop and free rotational head movement in the anterior-posterior plane. The CHI produced no cerebral edema or blood-brain barrier damage at 24 to 48 hours, no detectable cell death, occasional axonal injury (24 hours), and no brain atrophy or hippocampal cell loss (day 60). Microglia and astrocytes were activated (48 to 72 hours). Tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA, Fas mRNA, and TNFα protein were increased in the brain at 3 to 6 hours after injury (P<0.001 versus sham injured). In wild-type (WT) mice, CHI produced hidden platform (P=0.009) and probe deficits (P=0.001) in the Morris water maze versus sham. Surprisingly, injured TNFα/Fas knockout (KO) mice performed worse in hidden platform trials (P=0.036) but better in probe trials than did WT mice (P=0.0001). Administration of recombinant TNFα to injured TNFα/Fas KO mice reduced probe trial performance to that of WT. Thus, TNFα/Fas influence cognitive deficits independent of cell death after CHI. Therapies targeting TNFα/Fas together may be inappropriate for patients with concussive TBI.
Bile acids are biological compounds in the body that have interesting properties and have been used to make special chemical structures in molecular recognition. Various polymers have been synthesized from bile acids. The materials should preserve some of the properties of bile acids, such as biocompatibility, high stability of the steroid nucleus, reactivity of the side groups, optical activity and self-assembling capacity. The synthesis and applications proposed for such polymers are discussed.
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