The pre-metastatic niche educated by primary tumor-derived elements contributes to cancer metastasis. However, the role of host stromal cells in metastatic niche formation and organ-specific metastatic tropism is not clearly defined. Here, we demonstrate that lung epithelial cells are critical for initiating neutrophil recruitment and lung metastatic niche formation by sensing tumor exosomal RNAs via Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3). TLR3-deficient mice show reduced lung metastasis in the spontaneous metastatic models. Mechanistically, primary tumor-derived exosomal RNAs, which are enriched in small nuclear RNAs, activate TLR3 in lung epithelial cells, consequently inducing chemokine secretion in the lung and promoting neutrophil recruitment. Identification of metastatic axis of tumor exosomal RNAs and host lung epithelial cell TLR3 activation provides potential targets to control cancer metastasis to the lung.
It is well established that plasmids play an important role in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes; however, little is known about the role of the underlying interactions between different plasmid categories and other mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in shaping the promiscuous spread of AMR genes. Here, we developed a tool designed for plasmid classification, AMR gene annotation, and plasmid visualization and found that most plasmid-borne AMR genes, including those localized on class 1 integrons, are enriched in conjugative plasmids. Notably, we report the discovery and characterization of a massive insertion sequence (IS)-associated AMR gene transfer network (245 combinations covering 59 AMR gene subtypes and 53 ISs) linking conjugative plasmids and phylogenetically distant pathogens, suggesting a general evolutionary mechanism for the horizontal transfer of AMR genes mediated by the interaction between conjugative plasmids and ISs. Moreover, our experimental results confirmed the importance of the observed interactions in aiding the horizontal transfer and expanding the genetic range of AMR genes within complex microbial communities.
SummaryMacrophages can fuse to form osteoclasts in bone or multinucleate giant cells (MGCs) as part of the immune response. We use a systems genetics approach in rat macrophages to unravel their genetic determinants of multinucleation and investigate their role in both bone homeostasis and inflammatory disease. We identify a trans-regulated gene network associated with macrophage multinucleation and Kcnn4 as being the most significantly trans-regulated gene in the network and induced at the onset of fusion. Kcnn4 is required for osteoclast and MGC formation in rodents and humans. Genetic deletion of Kcnn4 reduces macrophage multinucleation through modulation of Ca2+ signaling, increases bone mass, and improves clinical outcome in arthritis. Pharmacological blockade of Kcnn4 reduces experimental glomerulonephritis. Our data implicate Kcnn4 in macrophage multinucleation, identifying it as a potential therapeutic target for inhibition of bone resorption and chronic inflammation.
The risk of the most serious cardiovascular events (cardiac ischemia or stroke) was not elevated in AI-only users compared with tamoxifen users. The finding that other CVD events combined were greater in AI users requires further study.
As the feature size of semiconductor process further scales to sub-16nm technology node, triple patterning lithography (TPL) has been regarded one of the most promising lithography candidates. M1 and contact layers, which are usually deployed within standard cells, are most critical and complex parts for modern digital designs. Traditional design flow that ignores TPL in early stages may limit the potential to resolve all the TPL conflicts. In this paper, we propose a coherent framework, including standard cell compliance and detailed placement to enable TPL friendly design. Considering TPL constraints during early design stages, such as standard cell compliance, improves the layout decomposability. With the pre-coloring solutions of standard cells, we present a TPL aware detailed placement, where the layout decomposition and placement can be resolved simultaneously. Our experimental results show that, with negligible impact on critical path delay, our framework can resolve the conflicts much more easily, compared with the traditional physical design flow and followed layout decomposition.
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