Background: Clinical trials have shown the cardiovascular protective effect of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and reduced hospitalization for heart failure. However, no study has investigated the association between SGLT2 inhibitors and the risk of arrhythmias. This study aimed to evaluate the risk of new-onset arrhythmias (NOA) and all-cause mortality with the use of SGLT2 inhibitors. Methods: This was a population-based cohort study utilizing Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Each patient aged 20 years and older who took SGLT2 inhibitors was assigned to the SGLT2 inhibitor group, whereas sex-, age-, diabetes mellitus duration-, drug index date-, and propensity score-matched randomly selected patients without SGLT2 inhibitors were assigned to the non-SGLT2 inhibitor group. The study outcome was all-cause mortality and NOA. Results: A total of 399,810 patients newly diagnosed with type 2 DM were enrolled. A 1:1 matching propensity method was used to match 79,150 patients to 79,150 controls in the non-SGLT2 inhibitors group for analysis. The SGLT2 inhibitor group was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0.547; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.482-0.621; P = 0.0001] and NOA (aHR 0.830; 95% CI 0.751-0.916; P = 0.0002). Conclusions: Patients with type 2 DM prescribed with SGLT2 inhibitors were associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality and NOA compared with those not taking SGLT2 inhibitors in real-world practice.
Aims: We aimed to evaluate the risk of valvular heart disease (VHD) among patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Methods: This was a population-based cohort study utilizing the Longitudinal Health Insurance Research Database of the National Health Insurance in Taiwan. Patients with and without coding of newly diagnosed AS from 1999 to 2013 were assigned to the AS and non-AS groups, respectively. Primary outcome was the incidental risk of VHD. Multiple Cox regression was used to estimate the adjusted hazard ratio of VHD. Subgroup analysis and sensitivity tests were also conducted. Results: The AS group included 3780 patients, and 22,680 matched subjects without an AS diagnosis were identified as controls. The AS group had an increased risk of VHD compared with non-AS controls (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.63; 95% confidence interval: 1.43–1.86; p < 0.001). Subgroup analysis also revealed an increased risk of individual types of VHD, including aortic, mitral, and tricuspid valve disease. Patients in the AS group had a higher incidence of valve replacement surgery after the onset of VHD. Conclusion: Patients with AS had a significant risk of VHD compared to non-AS controls in this population-based cohort study. Screening for VHD may be needed in caring patients with AS. We suggest that echocardiography may be performed when patients are diagnosed with AS.
Background The association of the use of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor and incident dementia remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the risk of incident dementia with the use of SGLT2 inhibitor. Methods This is a population-based cohort study utilizing Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database. Each patient who took SGLT2 inhibitors was assigned to the SGLT2 inhibitor group, whereas 1:1 propensity score-matched randomly selected patients who were nonusers of SGLT2 inhibitors were assigned to the non-SGLT2 inhibitor group. The study outcome was incident dementia. Results A total of 976,972 patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) between 2011 and 2018 were included in this study. After the patients’ propensity score matching by age, sex, duration of DM, comorbidities and drug index date of the patients, a total of 103,247 patients in the SGLT2 inhibitor group and 103,247 in the non-SGLT2 inhibitor group were enrolled for analysis. The SGLT2 inhibitor group was associated with a lower risk of incident dementia (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.89, 95% confidence interval: 0.82–0.96; p = .0021). Diabetic complications were significantly lower in the SGLT2 inhibitor group compared with the non-SGLT2 group. Sensitivity analysis was also consistent with the main analysis. Conclusions Patients with type 2 DM who were prescribed SGLT2 inhibitors were associated with a lower risk of incident dementia compared with those not prescribed SGLT2 inhibitors in real-world practice.
Background: Migraine is deemed a neurovascular disorder and there is growing evidence on the increased risk of cardiovascular disease, especially ischemic stroke, in patients with migraine. However the risk of peripheral artery disease (PAD) and stroke in migraineurs and the association between migraineurs with or without aura is still under debate. Our study aimed to identify the risk of PAD and stroke in migraineurs with or without aura. Methods: This was a population-based cohort study utilizing Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID2010). Patients with coding of migraine from 2002 to 2011 were enrolled and those with established cardiovascular disease defined as myocardial infarction, stroke, PAD, venous thromboembolism, atrial fibrillation and heart failure diagnosis before the index date were excluded. Participants were categorized into migraine group, migraine without aura group, and migraine with aura group respectively. The subjects in the three groups were propensity score-matched randomly to their counterparts without migraine. The study outcome was PAD and stroke. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the hazard ratios with 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between migraine and the incident events of disease, after controlling for related variables. Results: The migraine, migraine without aura, and migraine with aura group included 5,173 patients, 942 patients and 479 patients respectively after propensity score-matching. The migraine group had an increased risk of PAD [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 1.93; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.45-2.57; p < 0.001] and stroke (aHR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.35-1.77; p < 0.001) compared to their non-migraine controls. Both the groups of migraine without aura and with aura had an increased risk of stroke (aHR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.11-2.00; p = 0.008; aHR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.10-2.43; p = 0.016). With regards to the outcome of PAD, the group of migraine with aura had a trend of an increased risk but did not reach statistical significance (aHR: 1.95, 95% CI: 0.86-4.40; p = 0.108). Conclusion: Migraineurs without established cardiovascular disease had a significantly increased risk of PAD and stroke, and the risk of stroke persists in migraineurs with or without aura, with an increased trend of PAD in migraineurs with aura. Our study result should remind clinical physicians of the risk of PAD in the future among migraineurs even without established cardiovascular disease currently, and screening for PAD and stroke may be needed in caring patients with migraine.
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