BackgroundXanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP) is an uncommon infectious disease of the kidney known to mimic other renal maladies. A rare presentation of this uncommon disease is spontaneous renal hemorrhage (SRH).Case presentationWe report a case of XGP in a 58 year old woman who presented with abdominal pain, hematuria, and radiating left flank pain. CT scan was felt to be consistent with perirenal hemorrhage abutting a fat-containing renal mass. The patient was eventually taken to surgery for left partial nephrectomy. Pathology report returned as XGP, and the patient has no complications from this disease process at 8 month follow up.ConclusionOur search of the literature shows XGP presenting as SRH to be a rare clinical entity. Furthermore, this is the first such case managed with a nephron-sparing approach. The “great imitator” XGP should be added to the differential for patients presenting with spontaneous renal hemorrhage.
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