Advances in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) management have helped to reduce complications compared with its inception but they remain high. The principal causes of mortality and morbidity are bleeding and thrombosis. The nonbiologic surface of an extracorporeal circuit provokes a massive inflammatory response leading to consumption and activation of procoagulant and anticoagulant components. The vast differences in neonatal and adult anticoagulation and transfusion requirements demands tremendous clinical knowledge to provide the best care. Increased use of thrombelastogram will complement other methods currently being used to improved care. Methods to recognize the level of thrombin formation at the bedside could help reduce neurologic complications. ECMO requires a multidisciplinary team approach to achieve the best outcomes.
Use of a coagulation test-based transfusion algorithm in cardiac surgery patients with abnormal bleeding after CPB reduced non-erythrocyte allogeneic transfusions in the operating room and ICU blood loss.
A 10 mg/kg initial dose of tranexamic acid followed by an infusion of 1 mg.kg(-1).h(-1)produced plasma concentrations throughout the cardiopulmonary bypass period sufficient to inhibit fibrinolysis in vitro. The dosing of tranexamic acid may require adjustment for renal insufficiency.
Prior research has provided inconsistent data regarding the risk factors associated with complications from arterial cannulation. The goal of this study was to clearly define the incidence and risks factors associated with arterial cannulation complications.
After obtaining institutional review board approval, all patients requiring arterial line placement with documentation were included in this retrospective study between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2012. Leveraging two robust data warehouses, the Perioperative DataMart and the Mayo Clinic Life Silences System, the authors cross-matched arterial line cannulation with a documented vascular consult, neurologic consult, infection, or return to surgery within 30 days in order to identify the initial patient population.
A total of 62,626 arterial lines were placed in 57,787 patients, and 90.1% of the catheters placed were 20-gauge catheters. The radial artery was cannulated in 94.5% of patients. A total of 21 patients were identified as having experienced vascular complications or nerve injuries, resulting in a complication rate of 3.4 per 10,000 (95% CI, 2.1 to 5.1). Cardiac surgery had the largest number of catheters placed (n = 15,419) with 12 complications (complication rate = 7.8 per 10,000; 95% CI, 4.0 to 13.6). The rate of complications differed significantly (P < 0.001) across the three most common catheter sizes (2.7 per 10,000 [95% CI, 1.5 to 4.4] for 20 gauge, 17.2 per 10,000 [95% CI, 4.7 to 43.9] for 18 gauge, and 9.4 per 10,000 [95% CI, 1.1 to 34.1] for 5 French).
In a large retrospective study, the authors document a very low rate of complications with arterial line placement.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.