A large-scale inventory of trees > 10cm DBH was conducted in the upland "terra firme" rain forest of the Distrito Agropecuário da SUFRAMA (Manaus Free Zone Authority Agricul tural District) approximately 65Km north of the city of Manaus (AM), Srasil. The general appearance and structure of the forest is described together with local topography and soil texture. The preliminary results of the Inventory provide a minimum estimate of 698 tree species in 53 families in the 40Km radius sampled, including 17 undescribed species. The most numeri cally abundant families, Lecythidaceae, Leguminosae, 5apotaceae and Burseraceae as also among the most species rich families. One aspect of this diverse assemblage is the proliferation of species within certain genera, Including 26 genera In 17 families with 6 or more species or morphospecies. Most species have very low abundances of less than 1 tree per hectare. While more abundant species do exist at densities ranging up to a mean of 12 trees per ha, many have clumped distributions leading to great variation in local species abundance. The degree of similarity between hectare samples based int the Coefficient of Community similarity Index varies widely over different sample hectares for five ecologically different families. Soil texture apparently plays a significant role In determining species composition in the different one hectare plots examined while results for other variable were less consistent. Greater differences in similarity indices are found for comparisons with a one hectare sample within the same formation approximately 40Km to the south. It is concluded that homogeneity of tree commu nity composition within this single large and diverse yet continuous upland forest formation can not be assumed.
RESUMO Estudo crítico e revisão taxonômica de 35 espécies do gênero Virola (Myristicaceae) ocorrentes no Brasil. Consta de uma exposição das razões que motivaram a execução desse estudo, seguida de um esboço histórico das principais contribuições para o conhecimento do gênero no País e uma descrição sucinta de sua importância econômica. Segue uma discussão da fitogeografia do gênero no Brasil e de seus principais aspectos morfológicos, anatômicos e palinológicos. Dados sobre fenologia, relações genéricas e evolução do gênero Virola são também apresentados. A principal parte deste estudo é obviamente dedicado à classificação e descrições taxonômicas do gênero e das 35 espécies consideradas válidas pelo autor. O trabalho é ilustrado com fotografias, mapas e desenhos analíticos originais de folhas, flores e frutos.
545RESUMO -A Floresta Ombrófila Mista constituiu padrão referencial da flora do Paraná. O Parque Municipal das Araucárias localiza-se no Município de Guarapuava, PR, e abriga uma área de 41ha de floresta em estado natural. Foram instaladas 32 parcelas de 10 x 10 m e mensurados 447 indivíduos com diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP) igual ou superior a 4,8 cm, ou numa média de 1.397 indivíduos/ha. A estrutura horizontal da floresta é caracterizada por cinco espécies: Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze, Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Mart.) O. Berg, Casearia decandra Jac, Capsicodendron dinisii (Schwacke) Occhioni e Allophylus edulis (A. St.-Hil.) Radlk. ex Warm., que juntas somaram 64,85% do total de VI, 74,36% do valor de cobertura, 87,63% da dominância e 61,07% do número de indivíduos amostrados. Foi possível definir três estratos de altura: estrato inferior -até 5,99 m, estrato médio -entre 6,0 e 10,99 m e estrato superior -maior que 11 m. Os diâmetros dos indivíduos amostrados, distribuídos em 22 classes diamétricas, variaram de 4,8 a 114,7 cm. O índice de diversidade de Shannon-Weaver calculado foi de 2,79 nats/indivíduo e o índice de uniformidade de Pielou, igual a 0,9.Palavras-chave: Fitossociologia, floresta ombrófila mista e araucária. PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A MIXED OMBROPHYLOUS FOREST REMNANT IN GUARAPUAVA, PR
The densities of the breeding populations and the sex of all flowering individuals were recorded for five dioecious canopy tree species of Central Amazonian Myristicaceae, in 11 study areas of the Minimum Critical size of Ecosystems Project totalling 22.5 ha. Adult population densities were extremely low, ranging from 0.38 to 1.61 ha–1 for the five species studied. In a 10 ha study plot the mean distance to the nearest flowering conspecific ranged from 48 to 100 m, while the mean distance to the nearest opposite sex conspecific was 147 m. The two most abundant species, Iryanthera macrophylla and Virola calophylla, both showed male-biased sex ratios, of 23:9 and 20:6, respectively. The size class distribution of males, females and non-flowering individuals in V. calophylla suggests that earlier reproductive maturation of male plants may provide a partial explanation for this bias. In I. macrophylla, since 95% of the individuals were observed flowering, the observed ratio is representative of the population, and may be caused by sex shifts from male to female. The low reproductive densities, combined with the skewed sex ratios and overlapping generations of these species, create very small effective breeding populations, placing species such as these at great risk in the face of deforestation and habitat fragmentation.
Flora Fluminensis is the fi rst and one of the most important works edited by a Brazilian on the fl ora of Brazil. It is the result of the fi rst botanical expedition in southern Brazil, which was lead by a Franciscan friar, José Mariano da Conceição Vellozo (1742-1811). The goal of the expedition was to gather information on natural resources, especially the fl ora, from the captainship of Rio de Janeiro to the hinterland of the captainship of São Paulo. The research took place between 1782 and 1790 and the published work included 1,640 species and 374 genera, 104 of which were considered new. Vellozo was supported by the Vice-Roy Luis de Vasconcellos e Souza and was helped by a number of collaborators, including several draftsmen, the military (during the fi eldwork), and other botanists who described and identifi ed the plants and probably came from Portugal where he took the entire collection to fi nish the project (Damasceno 1977;Lima 1995).Vellozo (1831) illustrated 25 species of Passiflora, but the descriptions were published later (Vellozo 1881), with the exception of P. racemosa. Flora Fluminensis was published in three distinct periods: some text was printed in 1825, excluding the species of Passifl oraceae, but effectively published in 1829 (from September 7 th to November 28 th ); the illustrations were printed in 11 volumes, which were edited in 1827 and effectively published in 1831 (on October 29 th ); and the nearly complete text, with all species described, was issued on July 8 th , 1881 (Borgmeier 1937; the reasons for the delays in the publications are discussed in Carauta 1973 andLima 1995).Binomials that were not new taxa were included in the Flora Fluminensis along with their botanical descriptions, indigenous names, uses and habitats, but without authorship. By examining the list of names, the diagnoses and the illustrations in volume 9 (Vellozo, 1831), we noticed that some binomials used by Vellozo were synonyms or homonyms of names previously adopted by others. In spite of this, Flora Fluminensis is a remarkable work that has been consulted and reviewed by numerous taxonomists worldwide. Unfortunately, the botanical collections made by Vellozo were expropriated during the Napoleonic invasion of Portugal, in 1808, and disappeared after they were taken to France. Due to the lack of voucher collections, the plates, many of them of excellent quality, are usually the best option that botanists have for reviewing the described taxa (e.g., Sampaio & Peckolt 1943;Stellfeld 1950;Mello Filho 1975;Lima 1995).The 25 species of Passifl oraceae named by Vellozo in Flora Fluminensis are listed below; the accepted names are in boldface. The analysis was based on the plates and Latin diagnoses in Vellozo's (1831, 1881) works and the names have been reviewed and updated to refl ect current nomenclatural and taxonomic perspectives.
This study aimed to evaluate sugarcane growth and its agricultural and industrial yield influenced by phosphorus (P) sources and forms of application. The experiment was carried out at the Paisa Sugar Mill, in Penedo-AL, Brazil, from February 2012 to February 2013. The adopted experimental design was a randomized block in a factorial arrangement, with four replicates. The treatments consisted of five doses of triple superphosphate applied in the planting furrow (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1 of P2O5), and three doses of Bayóvar reactive phosphate rock (0, 100 and 200 kg ha-1 of P2O5) applied in the total area. Phosphorus applied in the planting furrow improved sugarcane quality through the reduction of fiber and increases in purity, corrected pol, total recoverable sugar, ton of pol per hectare (TPH) and ton of sugarcane per hectare (TSH). The Bayóvar reactive phosphate rock promoted increases in stem diameter at 120 days after planting (DAP), TPH and TSH. For the interaction triple superphosphate applied in the planting furrow x Bayóvar reactive phosphate rock applied in the total area, there were significant differences in the number of tillers at 30 DAP, stem diameter at 120 DAP and TSH.
O tratamento taxonômico do gênero Inga no Estado do Paraná, Brasil, foi baseado em coleções de herbário, trabalhos de campo e consulta à literatura referente ao gênero Inga disponível até a presente data. Doze táxons do gênero são assinalados, incluindo 10 espécies e 2 subespécies: I. barbata Benth., I. edulis Mart., I. edwallii (Harms.) T. D.Penn., I. laurina (Sw.) Willd., I. lentiscifolia Benth., I. marginata Willd., I. sellowiana Benth., I. sessilis (Vell.) Mart., I. striata Benth., I. subnuda subsp. luschnathiana (Benth.) T. D. Penn., I. vera subsp. affinis (DC) T. D. Penn. e I. virescens Benth.. São apresentadas chave de identificação, descrições e ilustrações além de serem fornecidos dados sobre distribuição geográfica, hábitat, época de floração e frutificação e o grau de conservação dos táxons em seu ambiente natural no Estado do Paraná.
The present article aims at contextualizing the first Brazilian experience with compulsory licensing, which functions as a defense mechanism to prevent excessive pricing by holders of patents. According to this mechanism, a government can authorize a third party to explore the patented object (in this case a drug) without previous consent from the patent holder. On May 4, 2007, Brazil officially issued compulsory licensing of the antiretroviral drug efavirenz for public, non-commercial use. Initially, generic versions of the drug were purchased from laboratories in India. The next step was the manufacture of efavirenz by Farmanguinhos, official pharmaceutical laboratory (Fundação Osvaldo Cruz). It is concluded that the decision made by the Brazilian government to issue compulsory licensing of efavirenz was correct, taking into account the projected savings of US$ 236.8 until 2012 and the guarantee of availability of efavirenz, the most usual free antiretroviral treatment provided in Brazil.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers