Electrocatalytic acetylene semihydrogenation is a promising alternative to thermocatalytic acetylene hydrogenation due to its environmental benignity and economic efficiency, but its performance is far below that of the thermocatalytic reaction because of strong competition from side reactions, including hydrogen evolution, overhydrogenation and carbon–carbon coupling reactions. We develop N–heterocyclic carbene–metal complexes, with electron–rich metal centers owing to the strongly σ–donating N–heterocyclic carbene ligands, as electrocatalysts for selective acetylene semihydrogenation. Experimental and theoretical investigations reveal that the copper sites in N–heterocyclic carbene–copper facilitate the absorption of electrophilic acetylene and the desorption of nucleophilic ethylene, ultimately suppressing the side reactions during electrocatalytic acetylene semihydrogenation, and exhibit superior semihydrogenation performance, with faradaic efficiencies of ≥98 % under pure acetylene flow. Even in a crude ethylene feed containing 1 % acetylene (1 × 104 ppm), N–heterocyclic carbene–copper affords a specific selectivity of >99 % during a 100–h stability test, continuous ethylene production with only ~30 ppm acetylene, a large space velocity of up to 9.6 × 105 mL·gcat−1·h−1, and a turnover frequency of 2.1 × 10−2 s−1, dramatically outperforming currently reported thermocatalysts.
Electrochemical reduction of CO2 to high‐value chemical feedstocks, such as formate, is one of the most promising ways to alleviate the greenhouse effect. Unfortunately, the exploration of electrocatalysts with high activity and selectivity over a wide potential window (especially low potential for high current density) still remains a grand challenge. In this study, the fabrication of bismuthene nanosheets using an in‐situ electrochemical transformation strategy of monoclinic scheelite BiVO4 flakes is demonstrated. Catalyzing the CO2 electroreduction in 1 m KHCO3 aqueous solution, the bismuthene nanosheets exhibit a dramatically high formate Faradaic efficiency (FE) of ≈97.4% and a very large current density of −105.4 mA cm−2 at −1.0 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode. Significantly, over a record wide potential window of 750 mV from the initial −0.65 V to the applied minimum −1.4 V, the formate FEs of the bismuthene nanosheets are always higher than 90%, outperforming state‐of‐the‐art electrocatalysts. Both experimental and theoretical investigations reveal that, in comparison with •COOH and H• intermediates, the bismuthene nanosheets preferentially promote fast reaction kinetics towards HCOO•, which eventually accelerates the production of formate.
As a novel electrocatalyst for acetylene semihydrogenation, single-atom nickel dispersed N-doped carbon exhibits a high acetylene conversion of 97.4%, which are attributed to weak π-adsorption of ethylene on individual Ni sites.
As appealing alternatives to noble-metal-based electrocatalysts for catalyzing hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in alkali electrolyzers, earth-abundant MoNi-based catalysts have attracted intensive attention. Unfortunately, the exploration of MoNi-based electrocatalysts with superior intrinsic activity and ultralong-term stability still remains a grand challenge. Here, ultralong high-index faceted Mo@MoNi core−shell nanowires were topochemically synthesized through the thermal reduction of Mo@NiMoO 4 core−shell nanowires, where single-crystalline Mo support facilitates the topological transformation of NiMoO 4 into high-index faceted MoNi. When the as-achieved Mo@MoNi core−shell nanowire film serve as a free-standing cathode in alkaline solutions, it exhibit a remarkably decreased HER overpotential of 18 mV at 10 mA cm −2 and a Tafel slope of ∼33 mV dec −1 , which are much lower than those for the state-of-the-art earth-abundant electrocatalysts and even commercial Pt/C. Experimental and theoretical investigations reveal that the exposed high-index (331) facets of MoNi can considerably reduce the energy barriers of initial water dissociation and subsequent hydrogen combination steps, which synergistically accelerates the sluggish alkaline HER kinetics. Significantly, after a 70-day HER operation, the overpotential of Mo@MoNi electrocatalysts at 10 mA cm −2 decreases by only 4 mV. Therefore, this work sheds a bright light on the rational design of high-performance HER electrocatalysts and their practical utilization for alkaline electrolyzers.
The 3D interlinked amorphous carbon nanotube (ACNT)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/BaFe12O19 (BF) composite was directly prepared by a self-propagation combustion process. The RGO was synthesized in situ through the massive heat release during the auto-combustion reaction. The interlinked ACNTs and graphene as well as BF formed the conductive networks for improving the dielectric and magnetic loss. The reflection loss peak of ACNT/RGO/BF composite was 19.03 dB at 11.04 GHz in the frequency range of 2?18 GHz. The frequency bandwidth of the reflection loss below 10 dB was 3.8 GHz. The 3D interlinked ACNT-RGO structure, which was composed of dense intertwined ACNT and graphene with quantities of dihedral angles, could consume incident waves via multiple reflections inside the 3D structures. The high conductivity of 3D interlinked ACNT/RGO networks would lead to energy dissipation in the form of heat through molecular friction and dielectric losspublishersversionPeer reviewe
Owing to its low cost, high conductivity, and chemical stability, Molybdenum phosphide (MoP) has great potential for electrochemically catalyzing the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Unfortunately, the development of high-activity MoP still remains a grand challenge in alkali-electrolyzers due to its sluggish water reduction kinetics. Here, we demonstrate a novel strategy for regulating the HER kinetics of the MoP nanowire cathode through partially substituting P atoms with Se dopants. In alkaline solutions, the Se-doped MoP (Se-MoP) nanowire cathode exhibits excellent HER performance with a greatly-decreased overpotential of ∼61 mV at 10 mA cm−2 and a Tafel slope of ∼63 mV dec−1, outperforming currently reported MoP-based electrocatalysts. Experimental and theoretical investigations reveal that Se doping not only facilitates the water dissociation on MoP, but also optimize the hydrogen adsorption free energy, eventually speeding up the sluggish alkaline HER kinetics. Therefore, this work paves a new path for designing MoP-based electrocatalyst with high HER performance in alkaline electrolyzers.
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