The suprapatellar approach was superior to infrapatrellar approach for the treatment of tibia shaft fracture. Therefore, we recommend the suprapatellar approach as a preferable approach in tibia intramedullary nailing.
CXCL8 (also known as IL-8) can produce different biological effects by binding to its receptors: CXCR1, CXCR2, and the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC). CXCL8 and its receptors are associated with the development of various tumor types, especially colorectal cancer and its liver metastases. In addition to promoting angiogenesis, proliferation, invasion, migration, and the survival of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells, CXCL8 and its receptors have also been known to induce the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of CRC cells, to help them to escape host immunosurveillance as well as to enhance resistance to anoikis, which promotes the formation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and their colonization of distant organs. In this paper, we will review the established roles of CXCL8 signaling in CRC and discuss the possible strategies of targeting CXCL8 signaling for overcoming CRC drug resistance and cancer progression, including direct targeting of CXCL8/CXCR1/2 or indirect targeting through the inhibition of CXCL8-CXCR1/2 signaling.
ObjectivesTo evaluate the impact and cost-benefit value of pharmacist interventions for prophylactic antibiotic use in surgical patients undergoing clean or clean-contaminated operations.MethodsA pre-to-post intervention study was performed in the Department of Urological Surgery of a tertiary hospital. Patients admitted from January through June 2011, undergoing clean or clean-contaminated surgery, served as the pre-intervention group; patients admitted from January through June 2012 formed the post-intervention group. Pharmacist interventions were performed for the surgeries in the post-intervention group. The criteria for the rational use of antibiotic prophylaxis were established by the hospital administration. The pharmacist interventions included real-time monitoring of medical records and controlling of the prescriptions of prophylactic antibiotics against the criteria. The pre- and post-intervention groups were then compared to evaluate the outcomes of the pharmacist interventions. A cost-benefit analysis was performed to determine the economic effects of implementing the pharmacist intervention on preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis.ResultsAfter the pharmacist intervention, a significant decrease was found in the rate of no indications for prophylactic antibiotic use (p = 0.004), the rate of broad-spectrum antibiotic use (p<0.001), the rate of drug replacement (p<0.001) and the rate of prolonged duration of prophylaxis (p<0.001). Significant reductions were observed in the mean antibiotic cost (p<0.001), the mean duration of antibiotic prophylaxis (p<0.001) and the mean number of antibiotics used (p<0.001). A significant increase was observed in the rate of correct choice of antibiotics (p<0.001). The ratio of the net mean cost savings for antibiotics to the mean cost of pharmacist time was approximately 18.79∶1.ConclusionReal-time interventions provided by a clinical pharmacist promoted rational use of prophylactic antibiotics, with a significant reduction in antibiotic costs, thus leading to favorable economic outcomes.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is spreading worldwide. Measuring the prevention and control of the disease has become a matter requiring urgent focus.
Based on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) clinical data from Wuhan, we conducted an in-depth analysis to clarify some of the pathological mechanisms of the disease and identify simple measures to predict its severity early on.
A total of 230 patients with non-mild COVID-19 were recruited, and information on their clinical characteristics, inflammatory cytokines, and T lymphocyte subsets was collected. Risk factors for severity were analyzed by binary logistic regression, and the associations of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios (N/LRs) with illness severity, disease course, CT grading, inflammatory cytokines, and T lymphocyte subsets were evaluated.
Our results showed that the N/LRs were closely related to interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 (
= 0.024) and to CD3
T lymphocytes (
= 0.046). In particular, the N/LRs were positively correlated with the severity and course of the disease (
< 0.001). Compared to the values at the first test after admission, IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly decreased and increased, respectively, as of the last test before discharge (
< 0.001). More importantly, through binary logistic regression, we found that male sex, underlying diseases (such as cardiovascular disease), pulse, and N/LRs were all closely related to the severity of the disease (
As a quick and convenient marker of inflammation, N/LRs may predict the disease course and severity level of non-mild COVID-19; male sex, cardiovascular disease, and pulse are also risk factors for the severity of non-mild COVID-19.
The aim of the present study was to summarize the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation of the thyroid (CASTLE). A search of the relevant literature was conducted, which identified 82 cases of CASTLE reported to date. A review of the clinical and auxiliary examination data, treatment, pathological findings and follow-up of these cases was performed. The clinical manifestations of CASTLE varied and did not demonstrate specificity. During ultrasound examination, CASTLE was described as a solid and hypoechoic mass, and the echo was typically observed to be heterogeneous. In computed tomography (CT), CASTLE was demonstrated to be a well-defined, soft tissue density mass without calcification, which appeared enhanced following administration of contrast medium. In emission CT, CASTLE was revealed as a ‘cold nodule’. A total of 78 patients underwent radical surgery, and 12 patients experienced recurrence. Lymph node metastasis did not promote recurrence, and postoperative radiation was not able to reduce the recurrence rate (P=0.144 and 1.000, respectively). The median follow-up time was 14 months (range, 1–312 months). Typical immunohistochemical examinations demonstrated the specimens to be positive for cluster of differentiation (CD)5, CD117, cytokeratin 19, epithelial membrane antigen and tumor protein 63, and negative for calcitonin, thyroglobulin and thyroid transcription factor-1. Thyroid CASTLE is a rare malignancy whose exact diagnosis relies on pathological examination, particularly immunohistochemistry, since preoperative examinations are usually unable to provide an exact diagnosis. Radical resection is the primary treatment for CASTLE, which presents favorable prognosis.
Current evidence indicates that locking plates and intramedullary nails have similar performance in terms of the functional scores and total complication rate. No superior treatment was suggested between locking plates and intramedullary nails for displaced proximal humeral fractures.
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