A multifunctional theranostic platform based on photosensitizer-loaded plasmonic vesicular assemblies of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) is developed for effective cancer imaging and treatment. The gold vesicles (GVs) composed of a monolayer of assembled GNPs show strong absorbance in the near-infrared (NIR) range of 650–800 nm, as a result of the plasmonic coupling effect between neighboring GNPs in the vesicular membranes. The strong NIR absorption and the capability of encapsulating photosensitizer Ce6 in gold vesicles (GVs) enable tri-modality NIR fluorescence/thermal/photoacoustic imaging-guided synergistic photothermal/photodynamic therapy (PTT/PDT) with improved efficacy. The Ce6-loaded GVs (GV-Ce6) have the following characteristics: i) high Ce6 loading efficiency (up to ~18.4 wt%; ii) enhanced cellular uptake efficiency of Ce6; iii) simultaneous tri-modality NIR fluorescence/thermal/photoacoustic imaging; iv) synergistic PTT/PDT treatment with improved efficacy using single wavelength continuous wave laser irradiation.
Hierarchical assembling of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) allows one to engineer the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peaks to the near-infrared (NIR) region for enhanced photothermal Therapy (PTT). Herein we report a novel theranostic platform based on biodegradable plasmonic gold nanovesicles for photoacoustic (PA) Imaging and PTT. The disulfide bond (S-S) termed PEG-b-PCL block copolymer graft allows dense packing of GNPs during the assembly process and induces ultra-strong plasmonic coupling effect between adjacent GNPs. The strong NIR absorption induced by plasmon coupling and very high photothermal conversion efficiency (η= 37 %) enable simultaneous thermal/PA imaging and enhanced PTT efficacy with improved clearance of the dissociated particles after the completion of PTT. These vesicle-architectures assembling of various nanocrystals with tailored optical, magnetic, and electronic properties opens new possibilities for constructing multifunctional biodegradable platforms for biomedical applications, particularly in cancer theranotics.
Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is a biomedical imaging modality that provides functional information regarding the cellular and molecular signatures of tissue by using endogenous and exogenous contrast agents. There has been tremendous effort devoted to the development of PA imaging agents, and gold nanoparticles as exogenous contrast agents have great potential for PA imaging due to their inherent and geometrically induced optical properties. The gold-based nanoparticles that are most commonly employed for PA imaging include spheres, rods, shells, prisms, cages, stars and vesicles. This article provides an overview of the current state of research in utilizing these gold nanomaterials for PA imaging of cancer, atherosclerotic plaques, brain function and image-guided therapy.
Multifunctional nanomaterials with integrated diagnostic and therapeutic functions, combination therapy to enhance treatment efficacy, as well as low toxicity have drawn tremendous attentions. Herein, we report a multifunctional theranostic agent based on peptide (LyP-1)-labeled ultrasmall semimetal nanoparticles of bismuth (Bi-LyP-1 NPs). Ultrasmall Bi NPs (3.6 nm) were facilely synthesized using oleylamine as the reducing agent and exhibited a higher tumor accumulation after being conjugated with the tumor-homing peptide LyP-1. The abilities to absorb both ionizing radiation and the second near-infrared (NIR-II) window laser radiation ensured that Bi-LyP-1 NPs are capable of dual-modal computed tomography/photoacoustic imaging and efficient synergistic NIR-II photothermal/radiotherapy of tumors. Moreover, Bi-LyP-1 NPs could be rapidly cleared from mice through both renal and fecal clearance and almost completely cleared after 30 days. Such multifunctional nanoparticles as efficient cancer theranostic agents, coupled with fast clearance and low toxicity, shed light on the future use of semimetal nanoparticles for biomedicine.
We report a supramolecular strategy to prepare conductive hydrogels with outstanding mechanical and electrochemical properties, which are utilized for flexible solid-state supercapacitors (SCs) with high performance. The supramolecular assembly of polyaniline and polyvinyl alcohol through dynamic boronate bond yields the polyaniline-polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel (PPH), which shows remarkable tensile strength (5.3 MPa) and electrochemical capacitance (928 F g(-1) ). The flexible solid-state supercapacitor based on PPH provides a large capacitance (306 mF cm(-2) and 153 F g(-1) ) and a high energy density of 13.6 Wh kg(-1) , superior to other flexible supercapacitors. The robustness of the PPH-based supercapacitor is demonstrated by the 100 % capacitance retention after 1000 mechanical folding cycles, and the 90 % capacitance retention after 1000 galvanostatic charge-discharge cycles. The high activity and robustness enable the PPH-based supercapacitor as a promising power device for flexible electronics.
Spectrometrically or optically encoded microsphere based suspension array technology (SAT) is applicable to the high-throughput, simultaneous detection of multiple analytes within a small, single sample volume. Thanks to the rapid development of nanotechnology, tremendous progress has been made in the multiplexed detecting capability, sensitivity, and photostability of suspension arrays. In this review, we first focus on the current stock of nanoparticle-based barcodes as well as the manufacturing technologies required for their production. We then move on to discuss all existing barcode-based bioanalysis patterns, including the various labels used in suspension arrays, label-free platforms, signal amplification methods, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based platforms. We then introduce automatic platforms for suspension arrays that use superparamagnetic nanoparticle-based microspheres. Finally, we summarize the current challenges and their proposed solutions, which are centered on improving encoding capacities, alternative probe possibilities, nonspecificity suppression, directional immobilization, and “point of care” platforms. Throughout this review, we aim to provide a comprehensive guide for the design of suspension arrays, with the goal of improving their performance in areas such as multiplexing capacity, throughput, sensitivity, and cost effectiveness. We hope that our summary on the state-of-the-art development of these arrays, our commentary on future challenges, and some proposed avenues for further advances will help drive the development of suspension array technology and its related fields.
YTH N6-methyladenosine (m6A) RNA binding protein 1 (YTHDF1) is a core factor in RNA methylation modification. Recent studies have shown that m6A is closely related to multiple tumors, thus YTHDF1 may also play a role in tumorigenesis. This study, aimed to explore the role of YTHDF1 in the colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we identified YTHDF1 as being highly expressed at the mRNA and protein levels in TCGA, GEO CRC and primary CRC. Furthermore, the YTHDF1 gene copy number was positively correlated with YTHDF1 mRNA expression in CRC. Knocking down the expression of YTHDF1 significantly inhibited the CRC cell's tumorigenicity
and murine xenograft tumor growth
. Furthermore, silencing of YTHDF1 inhibited the colonosphere formation ability
. Mechanistically, we found that silencing YTHDF1 significantly inhibited Wnt/β-catenin pathway activity in CRC cells. Together, YTHDF1 is overexpressed in CRC and plays a vital oncogenic role in CRC, and this novel finding may provide a potential therapeutic target for CRC.
Objectives:Evidence suggests a possible role of Fusobacterium nucleatum in colorectal carcinogenesis, especially in right-sided proximal colorectum. Considering a change in bowel contents and microbiome from proximal to distal colorectal segments, we hypothesized that the proportion of colorectal carcinoma enriched with F. nucleatum might gradually increase along the bowel subsites from rectum to cecum.Methods:A retrospective, cross-sectional analysis was conducted on 1,102 colon and rectal carcinomas in molecular pathological epidemiology databases of the Nurses’ Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. We measured the amount of F. nucleatum DNA in colorectal tumor tissue using a quantitative PCR assay and equally dichotomized F. nucleatum-positive cases (high vs. low). We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to examine the relationship of a bowel subsite variable (rectum, rectosigmoid junction, sigmoid colon, descending colon, splenic flexure, transverse colon, hepatic flexure, ascending colon, and cecum) with the amount of F. nucleatum.Results:The proportion of F. nucleatum-high colorectal cancers gradually increased from rectal cancers (2.5% 4/157) to cecal cancers (11% 19/178), with a statistically significant linear trend along all subsites (P<0.0001) and little evidence of non-linearity. The proportion of F. nucleatum-low cancers was higher in rectal, ascending colon, and cecal cancers than in cancers of middle segments.Conclusions:The proportion of F. nucleatum-high colorectal cancers gradually increases from rectum to cecum. Our data support the colorectal continuum model that reflects pathogenic influences of the gut microbiota on neoplastic and immune cells and challenges the prevailing two-colon (proximal vs. distal) dichotomy paradigm.
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