Aims:To evaluate pulsatility index (PI) in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) who underwent endovascular thrombectomy (EVT).Methods: Patients were retrospectively recruited if their stroke were secondary to middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion and achieved full recanalization after EVT.Transcranial Doppler was performed within 24-hour post-EVT. The primary outcome was correlation between the MCA-PI on the affected side and 3-month functional outcome, with modified Rankin scale (mRS) ≥5 indicated extremely poor functional outcomes.Results: Totally, 170 patients were included. High MCA-PI was positively related to the 3-month mRS score (r = 0.288, p < 0.001). The highest quartile of the MCA-PI was associated with a high incidence of extremely poor functional outcomes (adjusted OR, 13.33; 95% CI, 2.65-67.17; adjusted p = 0.002) after adjusting for confounding factors. The predictive capacity of the MCA-PI for extremely poor functional outcomes was good (area under the curve, 0.755; 95% CI, 0.655-0.854; p < 0.001), and its cutoff value for predicting extremely poor outcomes was 1.04, with a sensitivity of 65.6% and specificity of 78.3%. Conclusion:The MCA-PI on the affected side is a prognostic biomarker in patients who have undergone stroke thrombectomy. An elevated MCA-PI may be prognostically valuable for predicting extremely poor functional outcomes.
BACKGROUND: Oxycodone has been shown to be an effective analgesic for early postoperative analgesia, especially for abdominal operations associated with severe visceral pain. However, the dose needed varies depending on the operation and application of multimodal analgesia, such as local ropivacaine wound infiltration. Therefore, we conducted this study to estimate the median effective dose (ED50) of oxycodone that provides analgesia for hysterectomy and myomectomy with local ropivacaine wound infiltration. METHODS: In this dose-finding study, the ED50 of oxycodone for postoperative analgesia was estimated separately for laparoscopic hysterectomy, transabdominal hysterectomy, laparoscopic myomectomy, and transabdominal myomectomy. We used the sequential allocation designed by Dixon. Trials were conducted simultaneously in the 4 surgical type groups. A predefined dose of oxycodone was injected 30 minutes before the end of the operation with an initial dose of 0.1 mg/kg. A series of trials were performed following the rule of a relative 10% increase in dose after inadequate analgesia and a relative 10% decrease in dose after adequate analgesia. The study was conducted until the collection of 7 crossover points was achieved. Local ropivacaine wound infiltration was administered during abdominal stitching. The mean blood pressure (MBP) and heart rate (HR) were analyzed to assess the hemodynamic changes associated with oxycodone administration. RESULTS: A total of 113 patients were included in the estimation of ED50: 28 each in the laparoscopic hysterectomy group and transabdominal myomectomy group, 27 in the transabdominal hysterectomy group, and 30 in the laparoscopic myomectomy group. The estimated oxycodone ED50 (95% confidence interval [CI]) after laparoscopic hysterectomy, transabdominal hysterectomy, laparoscopic myomectomy, and transabdominal myomectomy was 0.060 mg/kg (0.053–0.068), 0.079 mg/kg (0.072–0.086), 0.060 mg/kg (0.051–0.071), and 0.092 mg/kg (0.086–0.098), respectively, for postoperative analgesia with local ropivacaine wound infiltration. The ED50 of oxycodone was different between laparoscopic surgeries and transabdominal surgeries (P < .001). The MBP and HR before and after oxycodone injection were different, regardless of surgical type. CONCLUSIONS: The oxycodone ED50 for postoperative analgesia was lower for laparoscopic hysterectomy (0.060 mg/kg) and laparoscopic myomectomy (0.060 mg/kg) than for transabdominal hysterectomy (0.079 mg/kg) and transabdominal myomectomy (0.092 mg/kg) when combined with local ropivacaine wound infiltration. A single intravenous injection of oxycodone is associated with an acceptable decrease in MBP and HR within a short time.
BackgroundDespite the continuing effort in investigating the preventive therapies for stroke-associated pneumonia (SAP), which is closely associated with unfavorable outcomes, conclusively effective therapy for the prevention of SAP is still lacking. Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) has been proven to improve the survival in the sepsis model and inflammatory responses have been indicated as important mechanisms involved in the multi-organ protection effect of RIC. This study aimed to assess the safety and the preliminary efficacy of RIC in the prevention of SAP in patients with acute ischemic stroke.MethodsWe performed a proof-of-concept, pilot open-label randomized controlled trial. Eligible patients (age > 18 years) within 48 h after stroke onset between March 2019 and October 2019 with acute ischemic stroke were randomly allocated (1:1) to the RIC group and the control group. All participants received standard medical therapy. Patients in the RIC group underwent RIC twice daily for 6 consecutive days. The safety outcome included any adverse events associated with RIC procedures. The efficacy outcome included the incidence of SAP, changes of immunological profiles including mHLA-DR, TLR-2, and TLR-4 as well as other plasma parameters from routine blood tests.ResultsIn total, 46 patients aged 63.1 ± 12.5 years, were recruited (23 in each group). Overall, 19 patients in the RIC group and 22 patients in the control group completed this study. No severe adverse event was attributed to RIC procedures. The incidence of SAP was lower in the remote ischemic conditioning group (2 patients [10.5%]) than that in the control group (6 patients [27.3%]), but no significant difference was detected in both univariate and multivariate analysis (p = 0.249 and adjusted p = 0.666). No significance has been found in this pilot trial in the level of immunological profiles HLA-DR, TLR4 and TLR2 expressed on monocytes as well as blood parameters tested through routine blood tests between the two groups (p > 0.05). The IL-6 and IL-1β levels at day 5 after admission in the RIC group were lower than those in the control group (p < 0.05).InterpretationThis proof-of-concept pilot randomized controlled trial was to investigate RIC as a prevention method for SAP. Remote ischemic conditioning is safe in the prevention of SAP in patients with acute ischemic stroke. The preventive effect of RIC on SAP should be further validated in future studies.
Ischemic stroke is one of the major disabling health‐care problem and multiple different approaches are needed to enhance rehabilitation, in which neural repair is the structural basement. Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) is a strategy to trigger endogenous protect. RIC has been reported to play neuroprotective role in acute stage of stroke, but the effect of RIC on repair process remaining unclear. Several studies have discovered some overlapped mechanisms RIC and neural repair performs. This review provides a hypothesis that RIC is a potential therapeutic strategy on stroke rehabilitation by evaluating the existing evidence and puts forward some remaining questions to clarify and future researches to be performed in the field.
Purpose. Danggui Shaoyao San (DSS) was developed to treat the ischemic stroke (IS) in patients and animal models. The purpose of this study was to explore its active compounds and demonstrate its mechanism against IS through network pharmacology, molecular docking, and animal experiment. Methods. All the components of DSS were retrieved from the pharmacology database of TCM system. The genes corresponding to the targets were retrieved using OMIM, CTD database, and TTD database. The herb-compound-target network was constructed by Cytoscape software. The target protein-protein interaction network was built using the STRING database. The core targets of DSS were analyzed by Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). Then, we achieved molecular docking between the hub proteins and the key active compounds. Finally, animal experiments were performed to verify the core targets. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining was used to calculate the infarct size in mice. The protein expression was determined using the Western blot. Results. Compound-target network mainly contained 51 compounds and 315 corresponding targets. Key targets contained MAPK1, SRC, PIK3R1, HRAS, AKT1, RHOA, RAC1, HSP90AA1, and RXRA FN1. There were 417 GO items in GO enrichment analysis ( p < 0.05 ) and 119 signaling pathways ( p < 0.05 ) in KEGG, mainly including negative regulation of apoptosis, steroid hormone-mediated signaling pathway, neutrophil activation, cellular response to oxidative stress, and VEGF signaling pathway. MAPK1, SRC, and PIK3R1 docked with small molecule compounds. According to the Western blot, the expression of p-MAPK 1, p-AKT, and p-SRC was regulated by DSS. Conclusions. This study showed that DSS can treat IS through multiple targets and routes and provided new insights to explore the mechanisms of DSS against IS.
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