Tuberculosis remains second only to HIV/AIDS as the leading cause of mortality worldwide due to a single infectious agent1. Despite chemotherapy, the global tuberculosis epidemic has intensified because of HIV co-infection, the lack of an effective vaccine and the emergence of multi-drug-resistant bacteria2–5. Alternative host-directed strategies could be exploited to improve treatment efficacy and outcome, contain drug-resistant strains and reduce disease severity and mortality6. The innate inflammatory response elicited by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) represents a logical host target7. Here we demonstrate that interleukin-1 (IL-1) confers host resistance through the induction of eicosanoids that limit excessive type I interferon (IFN) production and foster bacterial containment. We further show that, in infected mice and patients, reduced IL-1 responses and/or excessive type I IFN induction are linked to an eicosanoid imbalance associated with disease exacerbation. Host-directed immunotherapy with clinically approved drugs that augment prostaglandin E2 levels in these settings prevented acute mortality of Mtb-infected mice. Thus, IL-1 and type I IFNs represent two major counter-regulatory classes of inflammatory cytokines that control the outcome of Mtb infection and are functionally linked via eicosanoids. Our findings establish proof of concept for host-directed treatment strategies that manipulate the host eicosanoid network and represent feasible alternatives to conventional chemotherapy.
The Visual Object Tracking challenge VOT2018 is the sixth annual tracker benchmarking activity organized by the VOT initiative. Results of over eighty trackers are presented; many are state-of-the-art trackers published at major computer vision conferences or in journals in the recent years. The evaluation included the standard VOT and other popular methodologies for short-term tracking analysis and a "real-time" experiment simulating a situation where a tracker processes images as if provided by a continuously running sensor. A long-term tracking subchallenge has been introduced to the set of standard VOT sub-challenges. The new subchallenge focuses on long-term tracking properties, namely coping with target disappearance and reappearance. A new dataset has been compiled and a performance evaluation methodology that focuses on long-term tracking capabilities has been adopted. The VOT toolkit has been updated to support both standard short-term and the new longterm tracking subchallenges. Performance of the tested trackers typically by far exceeds standard baselines. The source code for most of the trackers is publicly available from the VOT page. The dataset, the evaluation kit and the results are publicly available at the challenge website 60 .
Background-Coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality is rising in many developing countries. We examined how much of the increase in CHD mortality in Beijing, China, between 1984 and 1999 could be attributed to changes in major cardiovascular risk factors and assessed the impact of medical and surgical treatments. Methods and Results-A validated, cell-based mortality model synthesized data on (1) patient numbers, (2) uptake of specific medical and surgical treatments, (3) treatment effectiveness, and (4) population trends in major cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, total cholesterol, blood pressure, obesity, and diabetes). Main data sources were the WHO MONICA and Sino-MONICA studies, the Chinese Multi-provincial Cohort Study, routine hospital statistics, and published meta-analyses. Age-adjusted CHD mortality rates increased by Ϸ50% in men and 27% in women (1608 more deaths in 1999 than expected by application of 1984 rates). Most of this increase (Ϸ77%, or 1397 additional deaths) was attributable to substantial rises in total cholesterol levels (more than 1 mmol/L), plus increases in diabetes and obesity. Blood pressure decreased slightly, whereas smoking prevalence increased in men but decreased substantially in women.In 1999, medical and surgical treatments in patients together prevented or postponed Ϸ642 deaths, mainly from initial treatments for acute myocardial infarction (Ϸ41%), hypertension (24%), angina (15%), secondary prevention (11%), and heart failure (10%). Multiway sensitivity analyses did not greatly influence the results. Conclusions-Much of the dramatic CHD mortality increases in Beijing can be explained by rises in total cholesterol, reflecting an increasingly "Western" diet. Without cardiological treatments, increases would have been even greater.
Although being very challenging, utilization of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) originating from production processes and flue gases of CO 2 -intensive sectors has a great environmental and industrial potential due to improving the resource efficiency of industry as well as by contributing to the reduction of CO 2 emissions. As a renewable and environmentally friendly source of carbon, catalytic approaches for CO 2 fixation in the synthesis of chemicals offer the way to mitigate the increasing CO 2 buildup. Among the catalytic reactions, methanation of CO 2 is a particularly promising technique for producing energy carrier or chemical. This article focuses on recent developments in catalytic materials, novel reactors, and reaction mechanism for methanation of CO 2 .
Population Health Research Institute, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario, Canadian Institutes of Health Research Strategy for Patient Oriented Research through the Ontario SPOR Support Unit, the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, pharmaceutical companies (with major contributions from AstraZeneca [Canada], Sanofi Aventis [France and Canada], Boehringer Ingelheim [Germany amd Canada], Servier, and GlaxoSmithKline), Novartis and King Pharma, and national or local organisations in participating countries.
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