A produção de orquídeas do gênero Phalaenopsis tem crescido nos últimos anos devido principalmente ao seu rápido crescimento e a produção de hastes florais com uma grande variedade de cores. Entre os fatores que afetam o crescimento e desenvolvimento destas plantas, a adequada nutrição é fundamental para obtenção de mudas de qualidade. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de doses de osmocote® (15-09-12-N-P2O5-K2O, respectivamente) no desenvolvimento inicial da orquídea Phalaenopsis sp. O fertilizante osmocote® foi adicionado nas seguintes doses: 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 e 10 g vaso-1. Após doze meses foram avaliados: comprimento e largura média das folhas, área foliar total, massa seca da parte aérea e raiz e teores de clorofila a, b e carotenoides. Dos substratos foram avaliados o pH e a condutividade elétrica. O comprimento e largura das folhas atingiram seu máximo nas doses de 4,7 e 5,0 g vaso-1, respectivamente. Para massa seca de folhas, raizes e área foliar total, as doses de máxima eficiência estimada foram 4,6, 3,5 e 4,5 g vaso-1, respectivamente. O aumento nas doses de Osmocote® acarretou na morte das plantas na aplicação de 10 g vaso-1. Doses estimadas entre 3,5 a 5,1 g vaso-1 de Osmocote® (15-09-12) são recomendadas no desenvolvimento inicial da orquídea Phalaenopsis sp. por proporcionar incrementos na altura, largura, área foliar, massa seca da planta e nos pigmentos fotossintetizantes. Doses acima de 6 g vaso-1 foram prejudiciais ao desenvolvimento devido ao aumento da condutividade elétrica e redução do pH
Association between auxins and plant growth-promoting bacteria can stimulate root growth and development of fruit crop nursery plants, and can be a promising biological alternative to increase the rooting of cuttings. The objective of this study was to assess the viability of producing ‘Powderblue’ blueberry nursery plants from cuttings using different doses of indolebutyric acid (IBA) in association with Azospirillum brasilense. The following treatments were tested: 0 (control); 500 mg L−1 of IBA; 1000 mg L−1 of IBA; A. brasilense; 500 mg L−1 of IBA + A. brasilense; and 1000 mg L−1 of IBA + A. brasilense. The experimental design was completely randomized, with six treatments and four replicates, and each plot (box) consisted of 10 cuttings. The boxes were arranged in a mist chamber with an intermittent regimen controlled by a timer and solenoid valve. After 90 days, the following variables were assessed: rooted cuttings; survival of cuttings; foliar retention; sprouting; cuttings with callus; root dry mass per cutting; number of roots per cutting; and root length. It was observed that the application of IBA with the A. brasilense rhizobacteria increased the number of roots of ‘Powderblue’ blueberry cuttings, while the treatments with IBA alone and IBA 1000 mg L−1 + A. brasilense increased the root length of cuttings. However, treatments with IBA and A. brasilense had no impact on % rooted cuttings and % survival of cuttings.
Sementes florestais com qualidade genética são imprescindíveis para fundação de populações, assim como, a composição química é fundamental para manter o vigor e favorecer o estabelecimento das mudas no campo. Dessa forma, o objetivo desse trabalho foi estimar a variabilidade, divergência e correlações genéticas e fenotípicas para compostos bioquímicos em sementes de árvores matrizes de aroeira (Myracrodruon urundeuva Fr. All.) para estabelecer estratégias de conservação ex situ. Os parâmetros genéticos e estatísticos foram obtidos com base no procedimento REML/BLUP. As diferenças genéticas entre as árvores matrizes foram significativas para todos os caracteres. O coeficiente de variação genética foi superior a 15% (teor de carboidrato). A herdabilidade da média de genótipos (> 0,98) e acurácia (> 99%) foram altas para o amido. As correlações genéticas e fenotípicas entre os compostos bioquímicos foram de baixa magnitude (< 0,29-amido e prolamina). Houve a formação de nove grupos heteróticos e a seleção de 50% das matrizes inferiu ganho de 15,84% para o índice de seleção de Mulamba-Mock. Portanto, a população natural de M. urundeuva apresenta ampla base genética e pode ser utilizada para estabelecer um teste de progênies como forma de conservação ex situ. Palavras-chave: composição química, Myracrodruon urundeuva, parâmetros genéticos, sementes florestais. Genetic variation for biochemical traits in aroeira seeds derived in anthropized population ABSTRACT: Genetic quality of forest seeds are essential for populations foundation, as well as, the chemical composition is essential to maintain the vigor and support the establishment of the seedlings in the plantation. The objective of this study was to estimate the variability, divergence and genetic and phenotypic correlations for biochemicals traits in seeds of mother trees of aroeira (Myracrodruon urundeuva Fr. All) to establish ex situ conservation strategies. Genetic and statistical parameters were obtained based on the REML/BLUP procedure. The genetic differences were significant for all traits. The genetic variation coefficient was greater than 15% (carbohydrate). The heritability average of genotypes (> 0.98) and accuracy (> 99%) were high in starch. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between biochemicals compounds were of low magnitude (< 0.29-starch and prolamin). There was formation of nine heterotic groups and selection of 50% of the mother trees deduced a gain of 15.84% by Mulamba-Mock selection index. Therefore, the natural population of M. urundeuva has broad base genetic and can be used to establish a progeny test as a form of genetic conservation ex situ.
The production of quality forest seedlings in large quantities is essential for the restoration of environments that have been deforested and degraded. However, obtaining seeds with high vigor is a challenge for several tree species native to Brazil. The objective of this work was to verify the germination potential of jatobá-da-mata seeds at different stages of maturation, in order to favor the production of seedlings of this species in nurseries. The seeds were extracted from green and ripe fruits detached from the mother plant and ripe fruits collected from the ground. The germination percentage, average germination time, emergence speed index, average speed, relative frequency, leaf area of the seedling, and length of the aerial part and root were measured. The planting was carried out with mechanically scarified and intact seeds from each maturation group. The results indicated that non-scarified green seeds can be used for planting and seedling production, as they do not require pre-germination treatment and have a favorable germination percentage (79%). Fruit seeds harvested from the ground, on the other hand, needed a method to overcome integumentary dormancy, such as mechanical scarification, obtaining a germination rate of 85%. The seeds of ripe fruits harvested in the matrix showed greater vigor, with a higher percentage of germination (96 to 100%), a higher emergence speed index, shorter average germination time, and seedlings with greater leaf area and greater length of shoot.
Aroeira-do-sertão is a Brazilian native species that has been widely explored. Thus, the population of this species has been reduced and techniques for its preservation are essential, such as the conservation of seeds in liquid nitrogen (LN). The objective of this work was to evaluate different cryoprotectant solutions for cryopreservation of aroeira-do-sertão seeds in LN (-196 °C). The treatments used were: control (7.5±1.5 °C); LN without cryoprotectant; sucrose 0.4 mol L-1; sucrose 0.8 mol L-1; glycerol 1 mol L-1; glycerol 2 mol L-1; PVS1 (plant vitrification solution); PVS2; PVS2 + 1% phloroglucinol; and PVS3. The seeds remained frozen for 120 days. The seeds were evaluated for germination and water content before cryopreservation. Several germination parameters were evaluated on the seventh day and plant growth variables were evaluated after 150 days. The seeds presented 9.2% water content and 74% germination before cryopreservation. The germination in the control treatment was 55%, whereas it varied from 61% to 69% under cryopreservation, denoting the positive effect of cryopreservation, even without cryoprotectants (69%). The seeds presented a triphasic water absorption model; the LN accelerated the germination, which started within 56 hours, whereas the germination in the control treatment started after 66 hours. The plant parts presented satisfactory development after 150 days, as shown by the Dickson quality index. The use of cryoprotectants did not affect seed germination and initial growth of seedlings. Aroeira-do-sertão seeds with 9.2% water content can be cryopreserved in LN without cryoprotectants.
Pomegranate fruit is to rich in phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties and can show difference in the composition according to cultivars, part of fruit, environmental conditions and analysis method. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyse and to compare the chemical composition and antioxidant properties from the different parts of fruit Valenciana and Wonderful pomegranate cultivars. The pomegranate fruits were separated into aril, peel, membrane and seeds manually and analysed by phenolic compounds, flavonoids, antioxidant activity (DPPH method), soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH and vitamin C content. The phenolic content and flavonoids were significantly affected by pomegranate cultivars and part of fruit. In the part of fruit showed differences by the DPPH, however the pomegranate cultivars not showed. Significant differences were revealed between the pomegranate cultivars and part of fruit for total soluble solids, titratable acidity and pH. The differents part of pomegranate fruit (aryl, membrane peeling and seed) has influences on the phenolic content, flavonoids, antioxidants, total soluble solids, pH and acidity. The cultivar does not show diffences on the antioxidants by DPPH method, pH and vitamin C.This study suggests the importance of the selection the different parts of fruit and cultivar that will be used as raw material in the preparation of pomegranate products with higher antioxidant activities.
Ora-pro-nobis (Pereskia aculeata Mill.) is an unconventional food plant, where asexual propagation via cuttings and the use of plant regulators is seen as an alternative in seedling production. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate different concentrations of 3-indolebutyric acid (IBA) in the rooting of semi-hardwood cuttings of Pereskia aculeata Mill. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in a completely randomised design, using cuttings of ora-pro-nobis at doses of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 g L-1 IBA in talc. Five treatments were used, with four replications, each comprising 10 cuttings. After 60 days, the following were evaluated: rate of cutting survival (SUR), number of shoots (NS), number of leaves (NL), mean shoot length (MSL), stem diameter (SD), length of the largest root (LRL), shoot fresh weight (SFW), shoot dry weight (SDW), root fresh weight (RFW), and root dry weight (RDW). The results were submitted to analysis of variance and regression analysis. SD, SDW and NL were significantly affected by the IBA dose. The values for stem diameter and dry weight as a function of the dose were adjusted to the quadratic model, with the maximum dose estimated at 1.5 g L-1, to give an SD of 6 mm and an SDW of 1.68 g. Number of leaves showed an inverse quadratic adjustment. The doses of IBA used in the semi-hardwood cuttings of Pereskia aculeata Mill. are not a condition of rooting. Stem diameter and shoot dry weight are dependent on the action of IBA, with the maximum response at an approximate dose of 1.5 g L-1.
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