Objective:To analyze the clinical pharmacist interventions performed during the review of prescription orders of the Adult Intensive Care, Cardiologic Intensive Care, and Clinical Cardiology Units of a large tertiary teaching hospital in Brazil.Methods:The analysis took place daily with the following parameters: dose, rate of administration, presentation and/or dosage form, presence of inappropriate/unnecessary drugs, necessity of additional medication, more proper alternative therapies, presence of relevant drug interactions, inconsistencies in prescription orders, physical-chemical incompatibilities/solution stability. From this evaluation, the drug therapy problems were classified, as well as the resulting clinical interventions.Results:During the study, a total of 6,438 drug orders were assessed and 933 interventions were performed. The most prevalent drug therapy problems involved ranitidine (28.44%), enoxaparin (13.76%), and meropenem (8.26%). The acceptability of the interventions was 76.32%. The most common problem found was related to dose, representing 46.73% of the total.Conclusion:Our study showed that up to 14.6% of the prescriptions reviewed had some drug therapy problem and the pharmacist interventions have promoted positive changes in seven to ten of these prescriptions.
Background:Potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) use in the elderly is associated with increased risk of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), but there is limited information regarding PIM use in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting.Objective:The aim of the study is to describe the prevalence and factors associated with the use of PIM and the occurrence of PIM-related adverse reactions in the critically ill elderly.Methods:This study enrolled all critically ill older adults (60 years or more) admitted to medical or cardiovascular ICUs between January and December 2013, in a large tertiary teaching hospital. For all patients, clinical pharmacists listed the medications given during the ICU stay and data on drugs were analyzed using 2012 Beers Criteria, to identify the prevalence of PIM. For each identified PIM the medical records were analyzed to evaluate factors associated with its use. The frequency of ADRs and, the causal relationship between PIM and the ADRs identified were also evaluated through review of medical records.Results:According to 2012 Beers Criteria, 98.2% of elderly patients used at least one PIM (n=599), of which 24.8% were newly started in the ICUs. In 29.6% of PIMs, there was a clinical circumstance that justified their prescription. The number of PIMs was associated with ICU length of stay and total number of medications. There was at least one ADR identified in 17.8% of patients; more than 40% were attributed to PIM, but there was no statistical association.Conclusions:There is a high prevalence of PIM used in acutely ill older people, but they do not seem to be the major cause of adverse drug reactions in this population. Although many PIMs had a clinical circumstance that led to their prescription during the course of ICU hospitalization, many were still present upon hospital discharge. Therefore, prescription of PIMs should be minimized to improve the safety of elderly patients.
Objectives: this observational study aimed to describe the discrepancies identified during medication reconciliation on patient admission to cardiology units in a large hospital.Methods: the medication history of patients was collected within 48 hours after admission, and intentional and unintentional discrepancies were classified as omission, duplication, dose, frequency, timing, and route of drug administration. Results: most of the patients evaluated were women (58.0%) with a mean age of 59 years, and 75.5% of the patients had a Charlson comorbidity index score between 1 and 3. Of the 117 discrepancies found, 50.4% were unintentional. Of these, 61.0% involved omission, 18.6% involved dosage, 18.6% involved timing, and 1.7% involved the route of drug administration. Conclusion: this study revealed a high prevalence of discrepancies, most of which were related to omissions, and 50% were unintentional. These results reveal the number of drugs that are not reincorporated into the treatment of patients, which can have important clinical consequences.
Mapping the components of the pharmacist-led discharge counselling studies through a scoping review allowed us to reveal how this service is performed around the world. Wide variability in this process and poor reporting were identified. Future studies are needed to define the core outcome set of this clinical pharmacy service to allow the generation of robust evidence and reproducibility in clinical practice.
BackgroundDiabetes and its complications are substantial causes of morbidity and mortality, and caused approximately 5.1 million deaths worldwide in 2013. Early detection and treatment of diabetes complications can prevent their progression.ObjectThis study compared the proportions of patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and T2DM, respectively) who achieved the goals of good clinical control.MethodsAdults and elderly patients with T1DM and T2DM at a public outpatient endocrinology service in Brazil were retrospectively evaluated between 2012 and 2013. Clinical and socio demographic data were obtained from medical records and evaluated in accordance with the Brazilian Diabetes Society Guidelines. Care process measures, outcomes indicators, and supporting process measures were evaluated.ResultsA total of 1031 records were analyzed: 29 and 71 % of patients had T1DM and T2DM, respectively. T2DM patients had significantly higher BMI than T1DM patients (overweight and obesity in 85.1 vs. 47.5 %, p < 0.01). The follow-up periods for diabetes and number of clinical visits to the endocrinology service were significantly greater among T1DM patients than T2DM patients (p < 0.01). However, T2DM patients required significantly more other (i.e., non-endocrinological) healthcare services (p < 0.01). HbA1c was significantly lower in T2DM patients (p < 0.01). Moreover, blood pressure and triglycerides were significantly higher in T2DM patients (p < 0.01), whereas total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein were significantly lower in T2DM patients (p < 0.01). Only 0.5 % of the patients achieved all targets, and 1.1 % did not achieve any.ConclusionsThe achievement of goals of good clinical practice varies among the parameters evaluated. Almost no patients achieved all targets. Many patients are overweight and do not achieve targets for HbA1c, lipid profile, or blood pressure control.
BACKGROUND: Transitions of care can contribute to medication errors and other adverse drug events. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of pharmacist-led discharge counseling on hospital readmission and emergency department visits through a systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Electronic searches were performed in PubMed, Scopus, and DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals), along with a manual search (July 2017). PROSPERO registration no. CRD42017068444. STUDY SELECTION: Two independent reviewers performed all the steps of the systematic review process (screening of titles and abstracts, full-text appraisal, data extraction, and quality assessment), with contributions from a third researcher. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting data on pharmacist-led discharge counseling. DATA EXTRACTION: Primary extracted outcomes were emergency department visits and hospital readmission rates. DATA SYNTHESIS: Meta-analyses of intervention versus usual care for hospital readmission and emergency department visit rates were performed using the inverse variance method. Results are reported as risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Prediction intervals (PIs) were also calculated. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were performed. A total of 21 RCTs were included in the qualitative synthesis and 18 in the meta-analyses (n = 7,244 patients). The original meta-analysis revealed a significant difference in the impact between pharmacist-led discharge counseling and usual care on overall hospital readmission (RR = 0.864 [95% CI 0.763-0.997], P = .020) and emergency department (RR = 0.697 [95% CI 0.535-0.907], P = .007) visits. However, the small number of included studies, the high heterogeneity among trials (I2 between 40% and 60%), and the wide PIs (hospital readmission: PI 0.542-1.186; emergency department visits: PI 0.027-1.367) prevented drawing further conclusions. CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient evidence exists regarding the effect of pharmacist-led discharge counseling on hospital readmission and emergency department visits. Further well-designed clinical trials with defined core outcome sets are needed.
Objective:The purpose of this overview (systematic review of systematic reviews) is to evaluate the impact of clinical decision support systems (CDSS) applied to medication use in the care process.Methods:A search for systematic reviews that address CDSS was performed on Medline following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and Cochrane recommendations. Terms related to CDSS and systematic reviews were used in combination with Boolean operators and search field tags to build the electronic search strategy. There was no limitation of date or language for inclusion. We included revisions that investigated, as a main or secondary objective, changes in process outcomes. The Revised Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (R-AMSTAR) score was used to evaluate the quality of the studies.Results:The search retrieved 954 articles. Five articles were added through manual search, totaling an initial sample of 959 articles. After screening and reading in full, 44 systematic reviews met the inclusion criteria. In the medication-use processes where CDSS was used, the most common stages were prescribing (n=38 (86.36%) and administering (n=12 (27.27%)). Most of the systematic reviews demonstrated improvement in the health care process (30/44 – 68.2%). The main positive results were related to improvement of the quality of prescription by the physicians (14/30 – 46.6%) and reduction of errors in prescribing (5/30 - 16.6%). However, the quality of the studies was poor, according to the score used.Conclusion:CDSSs represent a promising technology to optimize the medication-use process, especially related to improvement in the quality of prescriptions and reduction of prescribing errors, although higher quality studies are needed to establish the predictors of success in these systems.
Pharmacists and their pharmacies have been evolving in their roles as health promoters in Brazil. Some examples are the recent legislation reaffirming the role of Brazilian pharmacies as health institutions, rather than having only a commercial profile, giving greater clarity to pharmacists about their roles as health care providers. This evolution came with the recognition that is already seen in other developed countries, confirming the need for the pharmacist as a health promoter, and not simply a dispenser of drugs in society. This study has obtained the profile and activities of community pharmacists, as well as the quality indicators of private community pharmacies throughout the State of Paraná through the application of an online survey sent to pharmacists in the state. Out of all pharmacists surveyed, 533 were part of the final analysis, being the pharmacists to complete the survey in full. Participants were mostly female (69.4%) and were, on average, 35.2 ± 9.2 years old. Of these, 60% worked in pharmacy chains and just 37% of all pharmacist respondents were issuing the Declaration of Pharmaceutical Services. The current study showed that many pharmaceutical services are not adopted by pharmacies as these services bring no significant financial reward. Regarding the structure, the Paraná State showed that pharmacies present a good overall structure. The kind of pharmacy (chain or independent) influenced the pharmaceutical services provided and the available structure, where the independent pharmacies provide a wider range of services and have better structure. This study was able to identify the profile and behaviors of pharmacists and also the quality indicators of pharmacies in Paraná State.Uniterms: Pharmaceutical care. Pharmacists/professional practice. Community pharmacy/structure indicators/Paraná State, Brazil. INTRODUCTIONThe pharmaceutical profession has undergone important changes in the last few decades in Brazil, especially in relation to community pharmacies, with changing roles and a focus on providing clinical services to patients.The pharmacy, as commercial establishment, has evolved significantly (França Filho et al., 2008;Silva, Vieira, 2004), with regulatory advancements such as the publication of law 13.021/14, which inverts the profit oriented logic, by defining the pharmacy as a health care entity geared toward providing a pharmaceutical service, and technical and clinical assistance, to promote the best health care for the patients Souza, 2012).The term service refers to a set of activities organized in a work process. In a broad definition, pharmaceutical services represent any particular service provided by pharmacists and they may be clinical or not. The pharmaceutical care includes a wide range of clinical services, ranging from the benchmarks to pharmacotherapeutic monitoring itself. Recently, in order to clarify definitions and guide professional activity, the which regulate the attributions of clinical pharmacists and of pharmaceutical prescription.The importance of phar...
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