Abstract:The leaves of Myrcia DC. ex Guill species are used in traditional medicine and are also exploited commercially as herbal drugs for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The present work aimed to assess the qualitative and quantitative profiles of M. bella hydroalcoholic extract, due to these uses, since the existing legislation in Brazil determines that a standard method must be developed in order to be used for quality control of raw plant materials. The current study identified eleven known flavonoid-O-glycosides and six acylated flavonoid derivatives of myricetin and quercetin, together with two kaempferol glycosides and phenolic acids such as caffeic acid, ethil galate, gallic acid and quinic acid. In total, 24 constituents were characterized, by means of extensive preparative chromatographic analyses, along with MS and NMR techniques. An HPLC-PAD-ESI-IT-MS and FIA-ESI-IT-MS n method were developed for rapid identification of acylated flavonoids, flavonoid-O-glycosides derivatives of myricetin and quercetin and phenolic acids in the hydroalcoholic M. bella leaves extract. The FIA-ESI-IT-MS techinique is a powerful tool for direct and rapid identification of the constituents after isolation and NMR characterization. Thus, it could be used as an initial method for identification of authentic samples concerning quality control of Myrcia spp extracts.
Essential oil from Citrus aurantium and the monoterpene limonene are widely used flavoring agents that are found in some common food items. This specie is also used medicinally throughout the world to treat gastritis and gastric disorders. Therefore, biological assays were performed in vivo on essential oil of C. aurantium (OEC) and its majority compound limonene (LIM) to evaluate their effect on gastric mucosa. The OEC (250 mg/kg, p.o.) and LIM (245 mg/kg, p.o.) provided effective (99%) gastroprotection against lesions induced by absolute ethanol and NSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) in rats. OEC and LIM do not interfere with gastric H(+) secretion, serum gastrin or glutathione (GSH) level in gastric mucosa. But the gastroprotective action of OEC and LIM occurs due to an increase in the gastric mucus production induced by conserving the basal PGE(2) levels after challenge by agents harmful to the gastric mucosa. Given that LIM and OEC are excellent flavoring agents and also present gastroprotective actions, they can be regarded as a promising target for the development of a new drug for the prevention of gastric damage.
Aqueous infusions of Brazilian Maytenus leaves are used as beverages, foodstuffs, and phytomedicines. Previously, we isolated two new flavonoid tetrasaccharides from the infusion of Maytenus aquifolium leaves that showed antiulcer activity. In this investigation a new flavonoid tetrasaccharide, kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->6)-O-[alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl (1-->3)-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->2)]-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside (3), was isolated, together with kaempferol tri- and disaccharides and quercetin trisaccharides from the aqueous infusion of Maytenus ilicifolia leaves. All structures were elucidated by ES-MS and NMR spectroscopic methods. The quantitative analysis of the flavonoid glycosides from Maytenus ilicifolia and M. aquifolium has been performed by HPLC.
Abstract:The mutagenicity of ten flavonoids was assayed by the Ames test, in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100 and TA102, with the aim of establishing hydroxylation pattern-mutagenicity relationship profiles. The compounds assessed were: quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, fisetin, chrysin, galangin, flavone, 3-hydroxyflavone, 5-hydroxyflavone and 7-hydroxyflavone. In the Ames assay, quercetin acted directly and its mutagenicity increased with metabolic activation. In the presence of S9 mix, kaempferol and galangin were mutagenic in the TA98 strain and kaempferol showed signs of mutagenicity in the other strains. The absence of hydroxyl groups, as in flavone, only signs of mutagenicity were shown in strain TA102, after metabolization and, among monohydroxylated flavones (3-hydroxyflavone, 5-hydroxyflavone and 7-hydroxyflavone), the presence of hydroxyl groups only resulted in minor changes. Luteolin and fisetin also showed signs of mutagenicity in strain TA102. Finally, chrysin, which has only two hydroxy groups, at the 5-OH and 7-OH positions, also did not induce mutagenic activity in any of the bacterial strains used, under either activation condition. All the flavonoids were tested at concentrations varying from 2.6 to 30.7 nmol/plate for galangin and 12.1 to 225.0 nmol/plate for other flavonoids. In light of the above, it is necessary to clarify the conditions and the mechanisms that mediate the biological effects of flavonoids before treating them as therapeutical
OPEN ACCESSMolecules 2012, 17 5256 agents, since some compounds can be biotransformed into more genotoxic products; as is the case for galangin, kaempferol and quercetin.
Phytoestrogens are of interest because of their reported beneficial effects on many human maladies including cancer, neurodegeneration, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Furthermore, there is a search for compounds with estrogenic activity that can replace estrogen in hormone replacement therapy during menopause, without the undesirable effects of estrogen, such as the elevation of breast cancer occurrence. Thus, the principal objective of this study was to assess the estrogenic activity of flavonoids with different hydroxylation patterns: quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, fisetin, chrysin, galangin, flavone, 3-hydroxyflavone, 5-hydroxyflavone and 7-hydroxyflavone via two different in vitro assays, the recombinant yeast assay (RYA) and the MCF-7 proliferation assay (E-screen), since the most potent phytoestrogens are members of the flavonoid family. In these assays, kaempferol was the only compound that showed ERα-dependent transcriptional activation activity by RYA, showing 6.74±1.7 nM EEQ, besides acting as a full agonist for the stimulation of proliferation of MCF-7/BUS cells. The other compounds did not show detectable levels of interaction with ER under the conditions used in the RYA. However, in the E-screen assay, compounds such as galangin, luteolin and fisetin also stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7/BUS cells, acting as partial agonists. In the evaluation of antiestrogenicity, the compounds quercetin, chrysin and 3-hydroxyflavone significantly inhibited the cell proliferation induced by 17-β-estradiol in the E-screen assay, indicating that these compounds may act as estrogen receptor antagonists. Overall, it became clear in the assay results that the estrogenic activity of flavonoids was affected by small structural differences such as the number of hydroxyl groups, especially those on the B ring of the flavonoid.
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