ObjectivesThe development of tibiofemoral angle in children has shown ethnic
variations. However this data is unavailable for our population.MethodsWe measured the tibiofemoral angle (TFA) and intercondylar and
intermalleolar distances in 360 children aged between two and 18
years, dividing them into six interrupted age group intervals: two
to three years; five to six years; eight to nine years; 11 to 12
years; 14 to 15 years; and 17 to 18 years. Each age group comprised
30 boys and 30 girls. Other variables recorded included standing
height, sitting height, weight, thigh length, leg length and length
of the lower limb.ResultsChildren aged two to three years had a valgus angulation with
a mean TFA of 1.8° (sd 0.65) in boys and 2.45° (sd 0.87)
in girls. Peak valgus was seen in the five- to six-year age group,
with mean TFAs of 6.7° (sd 1.3) and 7.25° (sd 0.64)
for boys and girls, respectively. From this age the values gradually
declined to a mean of 3.18° (sd 1.74) and 4.43° (sd 0.68)
for boys and girls, respectively, at 17 to 18 years. Girls showed
a higher valgus angulation than boys at all age groups.ConclusionThis study defines the normal range of the TFA in south Indian
boys and girls using an easy and reliable technique of measurement
with a standardised custom-made goniometer.Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2013;2:155–61.
Information about the carrying angle and its variations are important in the management of paediatric elbow injuries. We measured the carrying angle using bony landmarks for 300 rural South Indian children aged 5-18 years. The study confirms that the clinical carrying angle correlates best with age up to 15 years, following which there was a slight decrease in the angles. The rate of increase of the carrying angle for boys and girls is 0.42 and 0.60 degrees per year respectively. Sex differences seem to gradually increase with a maximum being around puberty. The carrying angle is greater in girls than in boys by a mean of 1.31 degrees. The carrying angle did not correlate well with height, weight, humeral length or ulnar length. The reproducibility of measuring the carrying angle by the simple technique used in our study leads us to propose that this may be used in actual clinical practice.
The clinical, radiological and pathological features of a case of lipofibromatosis, a rare paediatric soft tissue neoplasm, are described. The tumour involved the foot of a male infant and was present at birth. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a lipomatous mass, with splaying of muscles of the sole by lobules of fat. Histopathological examination revealed typical findings of an admixture of mature adipose tissue and fibroblastic elements. The radiological and pathological features helpful in differentiating this entity from other fibro-fatty paediatric soft tissue tumours is discussed, and the relevant literature is briefly reviewed.
The purpose of this study was to determine the talar facet configuration of South Indian calcanei, measure the angle between the anterior and middle facet planes of these calcanei, and assess the relation between the above parameters and the degenerative changes in the subtalar joints. The angle between the anterior and middle talar facets was measured in 222 South Indian adult calcanei. The degree of sclerosis was measured on radiographs of the calcanei. Lipping and osteophytes around the joints were recorded by visual inspection. The facet patterns observed were fused anterior and middle facets (Type I), three separate facets (Type II), absence of the anterior facet (Type III), three merged facets (Type IV), and a new pattern of absent anterior and fused middle and posterior facets (Type V). An anterolateral impression was present in nine calcanei. Type I was the predominant pattern (72%). Type II configuration had the least mean angle (125 degrees) and had less number of calcanei with significant osteoarthritic changes. A wider angle was observed in Type I and Type III calcanei. Type IV and Type V were observed in only three and one calcanei, respectively. Lipping and osteophytes were observed in Type I to IV configurations. There was no correlation between the facet configuration and the radiological subchondral sclerosis in the posterior talar facet of the calcanei. This study reveals that the talar facet configuration of calcanei and the angle between the anterior and middle facets influence the stability of the subtalar joints and development of osteoarthritis.
Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is uncommon in India and we routinely look for associated metabolic or endocrine abnormalities. In this study we investigated a possible association between vitamin D deficiency and SCFE. All children presenting with SCFE during the study period had their 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels measured as part of an overall metabolic, renal and endocrine status evaluation, which included measurement of body mass index (BMI). Vitamin D status was compared with age-, gender- and habitat-matched controls with acute trauma or sepsis presenting to our emergency department. A total of 15 children (12 boys and three girls) with a mean age of 13 years (sd 1.81; 10 to 16) presented for treatment for SCFE during a two-year period beginning in January 2010. Renal and thyroid function was within the normal range in all cases. The mean BMI was 24.9 kg/m(2) (17.0 to 33.8), which was significantly higher than that of the controls (p = 0.006). There was a statistically significant difference between the mean values of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the children with SCFE and the controls (11.78 ng/ml (SD 5.4) versus 27.06 ng/ml (SD 5.53), respectively; p < 0.001). We concluded that, along with high BMI, there is a significant association of vitamin D deficiency and SCFE in India.
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