We propose a novel image denoising strategy based on an enhanced sparse representation in transform domain. The enhancement of the sparsity is achieved by grouping similar 2-D image fragments (e.g., blocks) into 3-D data arrays which we call "groups." Collaborative filtering is a special procedure developed to deal with these 3-D groups. We realize it using the three successive steps: 3-D transformation of a group, shrinkage of the transform spectrum, and inverse 3-D transformation. The result is a 3-D estimate that consists of the jointly filtered grouped image blocks. By attenuating the noise, the collaborative filtering reveals even the finest details shared by grouped blocks and, at the same time, it preserves the essential unique features of each individual block. The filtered blocks are then returned to their original positions. Because these blocks are overlapping, for each pixel, we obtain many different estimates which need to be combined. Aggregation is a particular averaging procedure which is exploited to take advantage of this redundancy. A significant improvement is obtained by a specially developed collaborative Wiener filtering. An algorithm based on this novel denoising strategy and its efficient implementation are presented in full detail; an extension to color-image denoising is also developed. The experimental results demonstrate that this computationally scalable algorithm achieves state-of-the-art denoising performance in terms of both peak signal-to-noise ratio and subjective visual quality.
We propose an image restoration technique exploiting regularized inversion and the recent block-matching and 3D filtering (BM3D) denoising filter. The BM3D employs a non-local modeling of images by collecting similar image patches in 3D arrays. The so-called collaborative filtering applied on such a 3D array is realized by transformdomain shrinkage. In this work, we propose an extension of the BM3D filter for colored noise, which we use in a two-step deblurring algorithm to improve the regularization after inversion in discrete Fourier domain. The first step of the algorithm is a regularized inversion using BM3D with collaborative hard-thresholding and the seconds step is a regularized Wiener inversion using BM3D with collaborative Wiener filtering. The experimental results show that the proposed technique is competitive with and in most cases outperforms the current best image restoration methods in terms of improvement in signal-to-noise ratio.
Abstract-We present a simple and usable noise model for the raw-data of digital imaging sensors. This signal-dependent noise model, which gives the pointwise standard-deviation of the noise as a function of the expectation of the pixel raw-data output, is composed of a Poissonian part, modeling the photon sensing, and Gaussian part, for the remaining stationary disturbancies in the output data. We further explicitly take into account the clipping of the data (over-and under-exposure), faithfully reproducing the nonlinear response of the sensor. We propose an algorithm for the fully automatic estimation of the model parameters given a single noisy image. Experiments with synthetic images as well as with real raw-data from various sensors prove the practical applicability of the method and the accuracy of the proposed model.
We present an extension of the BM3D filter to volumetric data. The proposed algorithm, BM4D, implements the grouping and collaborative filtering paradigm, where mutually similar d-dimensional patches are stacked together in a (d+1)-dimensional array and jointly filtered in transform domain. While in BM3D the basic data patches are blocks of pixels, in BM4D we utilize cubes of voxels, which are stacked into a 4-D "group." The 4-D transform applied on the group simultaneously exploits the local correlation present among voxels in each cube and the nonlocal correlation between the corresponding voxels of different cubes. Thus, the spectrum of the group is highly sparse, leading to very effective separation of signal and noise through coefficient shrinkage. After inverse transformation, we obtain estimates of each grouped cube, which are then adaptively aggregated at their original locations. We evaluate the algorithm on denoising of volumetric data corrupted by Gaussian and Rician noise, as well as on reconstruction of volumetric phantom data with non-zero phase from noisy and incomplete Fourier-domain (k-space) measurements. Experimental results demonstrate the state-of-the-art denoising performance of BM4D, and its effectiveness when exploited as a regularizer in volumetric data reconstruction.
We present a novel approach to still image denoising based on effective filtering in 3D transform domain by combining sliding-window transform processing with block-matching. We process blocks within the image in a sliding manner and utilize the block-matching concept by searching for blocks which are similar to the currently processed one. The matched blocks are stacked together to form a 3D array and due to the similarity between them, the data in the array exhibit high level of correlation. We exploit this correlation by applying a 3D decorrelating unitary transform and effectively attenuate the noise by shrinkage of the transform coefficients. The subsequent inverse 3D transform yields estimates of all matched blocks. After repeating this procedure for all image blocks in sliding manner, the final estimate is computed as weighed average of all overlapping blockestimates. A fast and efficient algorithm implementing the proposed approach is developed. The experimental results show that the proposed method delivers state-of-art denoising performance, both in terms of objective criteria and visual quality.
The shape-adaptive discrete cosine transform ISA-DCT) transform can be computed on a support of arbitrary shape, but retains a computational complexity comparable to that of the usual separable block-DCT (B-DCT). Despite the near-optimal decorrelation and energy compaction properties, application of the SA-DCT has been rather limited, targeted nearly exclusively to video compression. In this paper, we present a novel approach to image filtering based on the SA-DCT. We use the SA-DCT in conjunction with the Anisotropic Local Polynomial Approximation-Intersection of Confidence Intervals technique, which defines the shape of the transform's support in a pointwise adaptive manner. The thresholded or attenuated SA-DCT coefficients are used to reconstruct a local estimate of the signal within the adaptive-shape support. Since supports corresponding to different points are in general overlapping, the local estimates are averaged together using adaptive weights that depend on the region's statistics. This approach can be used for various image-processing tasks. In this paper, we consider, in particular, image denoising and image deblocking and deringing from block-DCT compression. A special structural constraint in luminance-chrominance space is also proposed to enable an accurate filtering of color images. Simulation experiments show a state-of-the-art quality of the final estimate, both in terms of objective criteria and visual appearance. Thanks to the adaptive support, reconstructed edges are clean, and no unpleasant ringing artifacts are introduced by the fitted transform.
A family of the block matching 3-D (BM3D) algorithms for various imaging problems has been recently proposed within the framework of nonlocal patchwise image modeling , . In this paper, we construct analysis and synthesis frames, formalizing BM3D image modeling, and use these frames to develop novel iterative deblurring algorithms. We consider two different formulations of the deblurring problem, i.e., one given by the minimization of the single-objective function and another based on the generalized Nash equilibrium (GNE) balance of two objective functions. The latter results in the algorithm where deblurring and denoising operations are decoupled. The convergence of the developed algorithms is proved. Simulation experiments show that the decoupled algorithm derived from the GNE formulation demonstrates the best numerical and visual results and shows superiority with respect to the state of the art in the field, confirming a valuable potential of BM3D-frames as an advanced image modeling tool.
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