RESUMO O presente trabalho objetivou revisar de forma sistemática a produção científica sobre intervenções de educação alimentar e nutricional com indivíduos adultos no campo da Atenção Primária à Saúde no Brasil, no período de 2006 a 2016. Foram selecionados 11 artigos que responderam aos critérios de elegibilidade. Observou-se uma descrição breve das bases teórico-metodológicas, limitando a reprodução das intervenções. As práticas educativas desenvolvidas possuem pouco enfoque na promoção da saúde e uma forte tendência metodológica clássica, sendo necessários estudos qualitativos, com a percepção da autonomia, e que ampliem o uso de metodologias ativas nos processos de intervenção. PALAVRAS-CHAVEEducação alimentar e nutricional. Atenção Primária à Saúde. Serviços de saúde. ABSTRACT This study aimed to systematically review the scientific production on interventions of food and nutritional education with adults individuals in the area of Primary Health Care in
BackgroundPopulation aging leads to increased burden of chronic diseases and demand in public health. This study aimed to assess whether the score of Primary Health Care (PHC) is associated with a) the model of care - Family Health Strategy (FHS) vs. traditional care model (the Basic Health Units; BHU); b) morbid conditions such as - hypertension, diabetes mellitus, mental disorders, chronic pain, obesity and central obesity; c) quality of life in elderly individuals who received care in those units.MethodsA survey was conducted among the elderly between August 2010 and August 2011, in Ilheus, Bahia. We interviewed elderly patients - 60 years or older - who consulted at BHU or FHS units in that day or participated in a group activity, and those who were visited at home by the staff of PHC, selected through a random sample. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, services’ attainment of primary care attributes, health problems and quality of life were investigated. The Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) was used to assess quality of life and PCATool to generate PHC scores. In addition, weight, height and waist circumference were measured. Trained research assistants, under supervision performed the data collection.ResultsA total of 511 elderly individuals were identified, two declined to participate, resulting in 509 individuals interviewed. The health care provided by the FHS has higher attainment of PHC attributes, in comparison to the BHU, resulting in lower prevalence of score below six. Except for hypertension and cardiovascular disease, other chronic problems were not independently associated with low scores in PHC. It was observed an independent and positive association between PHC score and the mental component of quality of life and an inverse association with the physical component.ConclusionsThis study showed higher PHC attributes attainment in units with FHS, regardless of the health problem. The degree of orientation to PHC increased the mental component score of quality of life.
Background: Ultra-processed foods are industrial formulations made from food extracts or constituents with little or no intact food and often containing additives that confer hyper-palatability. The consumption of these products increases the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases. Stressed people may engage in unhealthy eating as a way to cope. This study aimed to verify whether ultra-processed food consumption was associated with perceived stress levels in industrial and retail workers from Vitoria da Conquista, Brazil. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out between July 2017 and August 2018. During the study period, 1270 participants completed a survey administered by an interviewer. Stress levels were assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale. Information regarding weekly ultra-processed food consumption was collected. Ultra-processed foods were classified into four groups: sugary drinks; sugary foods; fast foods; and canned foods, frozen foods, or processed meat. The Student’s t-test or one-way analysis of variance was used to assess the differences in stress levels and ultra-processed food consumption. Ordinal regression was used to determine the association between the degrees of stress and ultra-processed food consumption levels. Results: Factors such as a young age, being unmarried, smoking, high-risk alcohol consumption, negative health perception, and high perceived stress level indicated higher rates of ultra-processed food consumption. Ordinal regression analysis showed that high stress levels were associated with increased odds of higher ultra-processed food consumption (odds ratio: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.54–2.45). Conclusions: These findings could help identify appropriate target areas for interventions aimed at mental health promotion and healthier food consumption.
Background: This study aimed to assess the quality of life associated with gender inequalities in formal workers and to determine the effect of sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral factors on the quality of life (QOL). Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 1270 workers. Quality of life was measured using the EUROHIS-QOL 8-Item and assessed in terms of psychological, environmental, social, and physical domains, while demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral, and clinical variables served as explanatory variables. Analyses were performed using an ordinal logistic regression model whose significance level was 5%. Results: Of the participants, 80.2% were men, and 19.8% were women; the mean age was 34 (standard deviation: ±10) and 32 (±9) years, respectively. In all prediction scenarios, men were more likely to have a higher quality of life, especially in the physical (odds ratio: 2.16; 95% confidence interval: 1.60–2.93) and psychological (odds ratio: 2.09; 95% confidence interval: 1.51–2.91) domains. Conclusions: Men and women had significantly different levels of quality of life, and sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral variables partially clarified these differences, which were possibly established by a socio-historical process of construction of the work role determined by gender issues.
Background: Living in a rural or remote area is frequently associated with impaired access to health services, which directly affects the possibility of early diagnosis and appropriate monitoring of diseases, mainly non-communicable ones, because of their asymptomatic onset and evolution. Point-of-care devices have emerged as useful technologies for improving access to several laboratory tests closely patients' beds or homes, which makes it possible to eliminate the distance barrier.Objective: To evaluate the application of point-of-care technology for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) estimation in the assessment of glycemic control and identification of new diagnoses of diabetes in primary care among rural communities in a Brazilian municipality.Materials and Methods: We included individuals aged 18 years or older among rural communities in a Brazilian municipality. From September 2019 to February 2020, participants were assessed for anthropometrics, blood pressure, and capillary glycemia during routine primary care team activities at health fairs and in patient groups. Participants previously diagnosed with diabetes but without recent HbA1c test results or those without a previous diagnosis but with random capillary glycemia higher than 140 mg/dL were considered positive and were tested for HbA1c by using a point-of-care device.Results: At the end of the study, 913 individuals were accessed. Of these, 600 (65.7%) had no previous diagnosis of diabetes, 58/600 (9.7%) refused capillary glycemia screening and 542/600 (90.7%) were tested. Among tested individuals, 73/542 (13.5%) cases without a previous diagnosis of diabetes, were positive for capillary glycemia. Among positives, 31/73 (42.5%) had HbA1c levels that were considered indicative of prediabetes and 16/73 (21.9%) were newly diagnosed with diabetes. Among the participants, 313/913 (34.3%) were previously diagnosed with diabetes. Recent HbA1c results were unavailable for 210/313 (67.1%). These individuals were tested using point-of-care devices. Among them, 143/210 (68.1%) had HbA1c levels higher than target levels (>7% and >8% for adults and elderly individuals, respectively.Conclusion: The application of point-of-care devices for HbA1c level measurement improved the access to this test for people living in rural or remote areas. Thus, it was possible to include this technology in the routine activities of primary health care teams, which increased the rates of new diagnoses and identification of patients with uncontrolled glycemia.
Introdução: Os fatores que determinam o comportamento e as práticas de alimentação são múltiplos e complexos. No âmbito do Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar (PNAE), a abordagem a este tema deve ser realizada de forma multidisciplinar e intersetorial, tendo como estratégia a educação alimentar e nutricional (EAN). O nutricionista está inserido nesse contexto como o responsável técnico, ou quadro técnico do programa, sendo assim um importante componente entre os atores responsáveis pelo desenvolvimento das ações de EAN no ambiente escolar. Objetivo: Conhecer a percepção do nutricionista atuante no PNAE quanto às atividades de educação alimentar e nutricional, o impacto da formação nas práticas e identificar as facilidades e barreiras existentes nesse contexto. Métodos: Realizou-se pesquisa de natureza qualitativa com entrevistas e gravação das falas para posterior análise do conteúdo. Analisou-se o confronto de ideias por convergências, divergências e complementaridades. Resultados e Conclusão: Percebeu-se que, apesar do recente fortalecimento da EAN, ainda existe uma lacuna entre o proposto pela legislação e a prática empreendida pelos profissionais. As principais deficiências descritas por estes foram: ausência de base teórico-metodológica consistente que oriente as práticas de EAN, quadro técnico insuficiente e dificuldade de integralização das diferentes áreas, o que gera descontinuidade no processo de aprendizagem e ineficiência das ações. Estratégias como cursos periódicos, capacitação para melhor planejar e envolver equipes, assim como melhoria das condições de trabalho e quantitativo de profissionais em toda dimensão do PNAE, são indispensáveis para a execução plena do programa.
Background Primary health care-oriented systems provide better healthcare, especially for chronic diseases. This study analyzed the perspectives of physicians and nurses performing care for patients with chronic diseases in Primary Health Care in a Brazilian city. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil, using semi-structured interviews with five physicians and 18 nurses. The interview included questions from an analytical matrix based on three dimensions of healthcare practices: organizational, technical care, and biopsychosocial, following a deductive approach. The interviews were fully transcribed and analyzed using a thematic categorical approach. Results The results indicated that the provision of chronic care occurs in a comprehensive way. Potentialities were identified in the diversification of access, offer of care actions and technologies, integration of teamwork, and bringing together social networks to foster autonomy and self-care. Weaknesses were mostly related to the high number of people in the teams, follow-up of several cases, high turnover of support teams, low integration of Primary Health Care with other levels, difficulties in intersectoral articulation and family participation in care. Conclusion The multidimensional assessment of health care practices aimed at individuals with chronic noncommunicable diseases was useful to portray the strengths and weaknesses of the services. It also ratifies the need to consider the importance of and investment in primary health care by offering the necessary technical, political, logistical and financial support to the units, to ensure the sustainability of the actions by nurses, doctors and entire team.
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