-The experiment evaluated the influence of isolated or associated phytogenic additives (PA) and organic acids (OA) on nutrient digestibility, performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Two experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement of treatments (with or without PA × with or without OA + antibiotic performance enhancer and anticoccidial). In the first experiment, two metabolic tests were conducted to determine the metabolizability coefficients of the nutrients of starter and growth diets. In the second experiment, 2520 one-day-old chicks were housed in 40 experimental units to evaluate the performance and carcass characteristics. The phytogenic additives and organic acids, isolated or associated, improve the nutrient digestibility of the diet and replace the growth-promoting antibiotics. The use of organic acids isolated or associated with phytogenic additives in broiler diets improves broiler performance in comparison with free antibiotic performance enhancer at 42 days of age. Isolated or associated phytogenic additives and organic acids provided better carcass characteristics.
The objective of this study was to determine if a diet supplemented simultaneously with vitamins C and E would alleviate the negative effects of heat stress, applied between 28 and 42 days of age, on performance, carcass and meat quality traits of broiler chickens. A total of 384 male broiler chickens were assigned to a completely randomized design, with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (diet with or without vitamin supplementation and two ambient temperatures plus a pair-feeding group) and 16 replicates. Chickens were kept in thermoneutral conditions up to 28 days of age. They were then housed in groups of four per cage, in three environmentally controlled chambers: two thermoneutral (22.5 and 22.6°C) and one for heat stress (32°C). Half the chickens were fed a diet supplemented with vitamins C (257 to 288 mg/kg) and E (93 to 109 mg/kg). In the thermoneutral chambers, half of the chickens were pair-fed to heat stressed chickens, receiving each day the average feed intake recorded in the heat stress chamber in the previous day. Meat physical quality analyses were performed on the pectoralis major muscle. No ambient temperature × diet supplementation interaction effects were detected on performance, carcass, or meat quality traits. The supplemented diet resulted in lower growth performance, attributed either to a carry-over effect of the lower initial BW, or to a possible catabolic effect of vitamins C and E when supplemented simultaneously at high levels. Heat stress reduced slaughter and carcass weights, average daily gain and feed intake, and increased feed conversion. Growth performance of pair-fed chickens was similar to that of heat stressed chickens. Exposure to heat stress increased carcass and abdominal fat percentages, but reduced breast, liver and heart percentages. Pair-fed chickens showed the lowest fat percentage and their breast percentage was similar to controls. Heat stress increased meat pH and negatively affected meat color and cooking loss. In pair-fed chickens, meat color was similar to the heat stressed group. Shear force was not influenced by heat stress, but pair-fed chickens showed the tenderest meat. In conclusion, reduction in growth performance and negative changes in meat color in heat stressed chickens were attributed to depression in feed intake, whereas negative changes in body composition, higher meat pH and cooking loss were credited to high ambient temperature per se. Diet supplementation with vitamins C and E as antioxidants did not mitigate any of these negative effects.
This present study aimed at evaluating the effect of the addition of an emulsifier to diets containing soybean oil, poultry fat or their blend, on the performance, carcass traits, serum lipid levels, pancreatic lipase concentration and nutrient digestibility of broilers. A randomized block design was applied using a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement, with three fat sources (soybean oil, poultry fat, and a blend of 50% soybean oil and 50% poultry fat) and the addition or not of an emulsifier. In experiment I, broiler performance, carcass traits, serum cholesterol, HDL, and triglyceride levels, and pancreatic lipase activity in 42-day-old broilers were evaluated. In experiment II, dry matter (DM), ether extract (EE), crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF) coefficients of digestibility were analyzed. Broilers fed the diet containing soybean oil and emulsifier presented higher body weight, weight gain and better feed conversion ratio. When birds were fed poultry fat and the fat blend (soybean oil and poultry fat) and the emulsifier was added to the diets, pancreatic lipase concentration increased. It was concluded that the use of soybean oil, poultry fat and their blend does no in the diet does not influence the performance, carcass traits, or serum cholesterol, HDL and triglyceride levels of 42-day-old broilers. The addition of emulsifiers to diets containing poultry fat improves ether extract digestibility and increases the production and secretion of pancreatic lipase
During the past few years, there has been considerable interest on the effects of stocking density on broiler behavior and immunity. Stress may cause immunodeficiency by affecting cell and humoral responses, as well as body weight decrease, and foot-pad dermatitis. The aim of this study was to study histomorphological changes of the bursa of Fabricius in broilers submitted to three different stocking densities (10, 15, and 20 birds/m²) from one to 42 days of age. Three birds from each group were sacrifieced on days 7 and 42. The bursa was collected, fixed, and processed for histomorphometric assessment using a Kontrom KS 400 image analyzer. Data were analyzed by Biostat 3.0 (Tukey Test). The results of average cortical area percentage in bursal follicles of 6-week-old birds were 45.12a (10 birds/m²), 30.43b (15 birds/m²), and 23.77b (20 birds/m²). Average body weight was 2.58a kg (10 birds/m²), 2.56a Kg (15 birds/m²), and 2.47b Kg (20 birds/m²), respectively. The percentage of foot-pad dermatitis in 6-week-old birds was 3.33a (10 birds/m²), 17.76b (15 birds/m²), and 49.17c (20 birds/m²). These differences were statistically significant at a P<0.05 level. Under these experimental conditions,, it was concluded that the best stocking density to produce broilers is between 10-15 birds per square meter
Aflatoxins (AF) and fumonisins (FU) are a major problem faced by poultry farmers, leading to huge economic losses. This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of AF (1 mg/kg of feed) and FU (25 mg/kg of feed), singly or in combination, on the lipid metabolism in commercial layers and investigate the efficacy of a commercial binder (2 kg/t of feed) on reducing the toxic effects of these mycotoxins. A total of 168 Hisex Brown layer hens, 37 wk of age, were randomized into a 3 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement (3 diets with no binder containing AF, FU, and AF+FU; 3 diets with binder containing AF, FU, and AF+FU; and a control diet with no mycotoxins and binders), totaling 7 treatments. The hens contaminated with AF showed the characteristic effects of aflatoxicosis, such as a yellow liver, resulting from the accumulation of liver fat, lower values of plasma very low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides, and higher relative weight of the kidneys and liver. Hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effects of FU were not observed in this study. On the other hand, the FU caused a reduction in small intestine length and an increase in abdominal fat deposition. The glucan-based binder prevented some of the deleterious effects of these mycotoxins, particularly the effects of AF on hepatic lipid metabolism, kidney relative weight, and FU in the small intestine.
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of phytogenic additives (PA) and organic acids (OA), alone or in combination, on the performance, intestinal histomorphometry and lipid oxidation, and immune responses of broiler chickens. In this experiment, 820 one-day-old chicks were distributed according to a completely randomized design in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement, with four replicates of 41 broilers each. The dietary treatments consisted of a control diet with no PA or OA (CD); CD with OA and no PA (CD+OA-PA); CD with PA and no OA (CD+PA-CD); CDwith both PA and OA (CD+PA+CD); and CD + avilamycin + monesin sodium. Broiler performance was not affected by the alternative feed additives, except from 1 to 21 days, when broilers fed the CD or CD+PA+OA diets showed higher body weight gain than those fed the CD with only OA. The broilers fed the diet containing avilamycin and monensin presented better performance. The supplementation of PA and OA increased bursalcortical area on21 and 42 days posthatch. On 21 days post-hatch, broilers fed the AGP diet presented higher ileal villus height than those fed the control diet. The pH values of the jejunum content were reduced on the OA-fed chickens. Higher villus height and crypt depth were found in the alternative additive-fed chickens on 7 days post-hatch. On 42 days post-hatch, the percentage of the bursal cortex increased in PA-fed broilers; however, there was no increase in antibody production. The PAfed chickens presented lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values in the small intestine. The dietary supplementation of phytogenic additives, individually or in combination associated with organic acids, does not affect broiler live performance or intestinal histomorphometry; however, it enhances immune responses and intestinal quality.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of corn texture and the particle size on broiler performance, carcass yield, nutrient digestibility, and digestive organ morphometrics. In Experiment I, 720 male Cobb chicks were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement, consisting two corn textures (dented and hard) and three corn particle sizes, was applied, with four replicates of 30 birds each. Corn particle size was classified according to geometric mean diameter (GMD) as fine - 0.46 mm; medium - 0.73 mm, and coarse - 0.87 mm. In Experiment II, 120 broiler chicks were used to evaluate corn digestibility during the periods of 16 to 22 days and 35 to 41 days of age, using the method of total excreta collection. In Experiment I, corn particle size influenced body weight, average weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio of 21-day-old birds. Corn texture and particle size did not affect the performance of 42-day-old broilers or carcass traits. In Experiment II, there was no influence of corn texture and particle size on digestive organ weights. Dented corn increased nitrogen excretion in the first trial, and hard corn improved dry matter digestibility in the second metabolic trial. Corn with fine particle size promotes better performance of broilers at 21 days of age. Hard corn results in higher dry matter digestibility and lower nitrogen excretion, and consequently higher production factor in 42-day-old broilers
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