Tree populations structure and dynamics of a semideciduous seazonal forest fragment in the Piracicaba region, São Paulo state, BrazilFragmentation of tropical forests associated with anthropogenic disturbance can result in a loss of tree species and floristic composition change throughout the time in a forest fragment. To gather quantitative data regarding this hypothesis, this study was conducted in a 9.5 ha semideciduous seazonal forest fragment located in Piracicaba region, São Paulo state, Brazil. This fragment is named "Mata do Pomar", where two fires occurred in the recent past. In this fragment, recruitment, mortality and populational change of tree species were obtained in 4-year period (1991 and 1995). Different patterns of recruitment, mortality and populational change were found among tree species and ecological groups. The ten species more abundant in 1991 (class 1 -⊕ 15 individuals/ha ) presented 79.9% of recruitament, against only 7.5% and 9.0% of recruitment presented by density classes 2 (5.2 to 13.8 individuals/ ha) and 3 (1.7 and 3.4 individuals/ha), respectively. In particular, the three most abundant tree species in 1991, Bauhinia forficata, Aloysia virgata and Urera baccifera, all pioneer species, and Croton floribundus, an opportunistic species, were responsible for 75% of recruitment.Coupled with the high recruitment, these species also had low mortality, which resulted in a pronunciated population increasing. In the two lower density classes, 2 and 3, beyond the low recruitment, the pioneer and the opportunistic species presented 74.2% of recruitment. These last groups also presented a greater density gain than shade-tolerant canopy species and shade-tolerant understory species in the density classes 2 and 3. Beyond these results were also done a comparative analysis of this fragment with a fragment of same size ("Santa Rita" fragment -9.5 ha) and a fragment of 86 ha ("Capuava" fragment), both located in Piracicaba region.The "Mata do Pomar" fragment presents less of the half of tree species than "Santa Rita" and "Capuava" fragments, although with the same size of "Santa Rita" fragment. Further, the four most abundant tree species in the "Mata do Pomar" fragment, B. forficata, A. virgata, U. baccifera and T. micrantha are responsible for 62% of individuals, whereas the four most abundant tree species in "Santa Rita" and "Capuava" fragments are responsibles for only 30.6% and 23.2% of individuals, respectively, indicating a high local dominance in the "Mata do Pomar" fragment.This study demonstrates that strategies of conservation biodirversity in semideciduous seazonal forest fragments in the São Paulo state should consider the anthropogenic disturbance in the identification of conservation priorities.