Time-triggered automotive networks use time-triggered protocols (FlexRay, TTEthernet, etc.) for periodic message transmissions that often originate from safety and time-critical applications. One of the major challenges with time-triggered transmissions is jitter, which is the unpredictable delay-induced deviation from the actual periodicity of a message. Failure to account for jitter can be catastrophic in time-sensitive systems, such as automotive platforms. In this article, we propose a novel scheduling framework (JAMS-SG) that satisfies timing constraints during message delivery for both jitter-affected time-triggered messages and high-priority event-triggered messages in automotive networks. At design time, JAMS-SG performs jitter-aware frame packing (packing of multiple signals from Electronic Control Units (ECUs) into messages) and schedules synthesis with a hybrid heuristic. At runtime, a Multi-Level Feedback Queue (MLFQ) handles jitter-affected time-triggered messages and high-priority event-triggered messages that are scheduled using a runtime scheduler. Our simulation results, based on messages and network traffic data from a real vehicle, indicate that JAMS-SG is highly scalable and outperforms the best-known prior work in the area in the presence of jitter.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.