Spectrum sensing is critical in allowing the cognitive radio network, which will be used in the next generation of wireless communication systems. Several approaches, including cyclostationary process, energy detectors, and matching filters, have been suggested over the course of several decades. These strategies, on the other hand, have a number of disadvantages. Energy detectors have poor performance when the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is changing, cyclostationary detectors are very complicated, and matching filters need previous knowledge of the main user (PU) signals. Additionally, these strategies rely on thresholds under particular signal-noise model assumptions in addition to the thresholds, and as a result, the detection effectiveness of these techniques is wholly dependent on the accuracy of the sensor. In this way, one of the most sought-after difficulties among wireless researchers continues to be the development of a reliable and intelligent spectrum sensing technology. In contrast, multilayer learning models are not ideal for dealing with time-series data because of the large computational cost and high rate of misclassification associated with them. For this reason, the authors propose a hybrid combination of long short-term memory (LSTM) and extreme learning machines (ELM) to learn temporal features from spectral data and to exploit other environmental activity statistics such as energy, distance, and duty cycle duration for the improvement of sensing performance. The suggested system has been tested on a Raspberry Pi Model B+ and the GNU-radio experimental testbed, among other platforms.
Breast cancer is a lethal illness that has a high mortality rate. In treatment, the accuracy of diagnosis is crucial. Machine learning and deep learning may be beneficial to doctors. The proposed backbone network is critical for the present performance of CNN-based detectors. Integrating dilated convolution, ResNet, and Alexnet increases detection performance. The composite dilated backbone network (CDBN) is an innovative method for integrating many identical backbones into a single robust backbone. Hence, CDBN uses the lead backbone feature maps to identify objects. It feeds high-level output features from previous backbones into the next backbone in a stepwise way. We show that most contemporary detectors can easily include CDBN to improve performance achieved mAP improvements ranging from 1.5 to 3.0 percent on the breast cancer histopathological image classification (BreakHis) dataset. Experiments have also shown that instance segmentation may be improved. In the BreakHis dataset, CDBN enhances the baseline detector cascade mask R-CNN (mAP = 53.3). The proposed CDBN detector does not need pretraining. It creates high-level traits by combining low-level elements. This network is made up of several identical backbones that are linked together. The composite dilated backbone considers the linked backbones CDBN.
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