For 3 radio-loud γ-ray detected Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 (γ-ray NLSy1) galaxies, we report optical variability on intra-night and/or week-like time scales, based on five 3 hours long monitoring sessions for each galaxy. The radio-loudness factors (R 1.4GHz ) 1 for these galaxies, namely 1H 0323+342 (z = 0.0629), PKS J1222+0413 (z = 0.966) and PKS J1505+0326 (z = 0.408) are ∼318, ∼1534 and ∼3364 at 1.4 GHz, respectively. For the most distant γ-ray NLSy1, PKS J1222+0413, Intra-Night Optical Variability (INOV) characterisation is presented for the first time. The blazar-like behaviour of the nearest γ-ray NLSy1 1H 0323+342, which showed strong INOV on 4 of the 5 nights, was unexpected in view of its recent reclassification as radio intermediate (R 5GHz 25). Its particularly violent INOV is manifested by two optical outbursts lasting ∼ 1 hour, whose rapid brightening phase is shown to imply a doubling time of ∼ 1 hour for the optical synchrotron flux, after (conservatively) deducting the thermal optical emission contributed by the host galaxy and the Seyfert nucleus. A more realistic decontamination could well reduce substantially the flux doubling time, bringing it still closer in rapidity to the ultra-fast VHE (> 100 GeV) flares reported for the blazars PKS 1222+216 and PKS 2155−304. A large contamination by thermal optical emission may, in fact, be common for NLSy1s as they are high Eddington rate accretors. The present study further suggests that superluminal motion in the radio jet could be a robust diagnostic of INOV.
In a systematic program to characterise the intra-night optical variability (INOV) of different classes of narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLSy1s), we report here the first comparative INOV study of NLSy1 sets detected in the X-ray and γ-ray bands. Our sample consists of 18 sources detected in X-ray but not in γ-rays (hereafter x NLSy1s) and 7 sources detected in γ-rays (hereafter g NLSy1s), out of which 5 are detected also in X-rays. We have monitored these two sets of NLSy1s, respectively, in 24 and 21 sessions of a minimum of 3 hours duration each. The INOV duty cycles for these two sets are found to be 12% and 53%, respectively (at a 99% confidence level). In the set of 18 x NLSy1s, INOV duty cycle is found to be zero for the 13 radio-quiet members (monitored in 14 sessions) and 43% for the 5 radio-loud members (10 sessions). The latter is very similar to the aforementioned duty cycle of 53% found here for the set of g NLSy1s (all of which are radio-loud). Thus it appears that the radio loudness level is the prime factor behind the INOV detection and the pattern of the high-energy radiation plays only a minor role.
We report the first attempt to systematically characterise intra-night optical variability (INOV) of the rare and enigmatic subset of Narrow-Line Seyfert1 galaxies (NLSy1s), which is marked by detection in the γ-ray band and is therefore endowed with Doppler boosted relativistic jets, like blazars. However, the central engines in these two types of AGN are thought to operate in different regimes of accretion rate. Our INOV search in a fairly large and unbiased sample of 15 γ-ray NLSy1s was conducted in 36 monitoring sessions, each lasting ≥ 3 hrs. In our analysis, special care has been taken to address the possible effect on the differential light curves, of any variation in the seeing disc during the session, since that might lead to spurious claims of INOV from such AGN due to the possibility of a significant contribution from the host galaxy to the total optical emission. From our observations, a duty cycle (DC) of INOV detection in the γ-ray NLSy1s is estimated to be around 25% - 30%, which is comparable to that known for blazars. This estimate of DC will probably need an upward revision, once it becomes possible to correct for the dilution of the AGN’s nonthermal optical emission by the (much steadier) optical emission contributed not only by the host galaxy but also the nuclear accretion disc in these high Eddington rate accretors. Finally, we also draw attention to the possibility that sharp optical flux changes on sub-hour time scale are less rare for γ-ray NLSy1s, in comparison to blazars.
We present a comparative study of the physical properties of a homogeneous sample of 144 Narrow line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1) and 117 Broad-line Seyfert 1 (BLSy1) galaxies. These two samples are in a similar luminosity and redshift range and have optical spectra available in the 16th data release of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-DR16) and X-ray spectra in either XMM-NEWTON or ROSAT. Direct correlation analysis and a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) have been performed using ten observational and physical parameters obtained by fitting the optical spectra and the soft X-ray photon indices as another parameter. We confirm that the established correlations for the general quasar population hold for both types of galaxies in this sample despite significant differences in the physical properties. We characterize the sample also using the line shape parameters, namely the asymmetry and kurtosis indices. We find that the fraction of NLSy1 galaxies showing outflow signatures, characterized by blue asymmetries, is higher by a factor of about 3 compared to the corresponding fraction in BLSy1 galaxies. The presence of high iron content in the broad-line region of NLSy1 galaxies in conjunction with higher Eddington ratios can be the possible reason behind this phenomenon. We also explore the possibility of using asymmetry in the emission lines as a tracer of outflows in the inner regions of Active Galactic Nuclei. The PCA results point to the NLSy1 and BLSy1 galaxies occupying different parameter spaces, which challenges the notion that NLSy1 galaxies are a subclass of BLSy1 galaxies.
We report the first systematic search for blazars among broad-absorption-line (BAL) quasars. This is based on our intranight optical monitoring of a well-defined sample of 10 candidates selected on the criteria of a flat spectrum and an abnormally high linear polarization at radio wavelengths. A small population of BAL blazars can be expected in the 'polar model' of BAL quasars. However, no such case is found, since none of our 30 monitoring sessions devoted to the 10 candidates yielded a positive detection of intra-night optical variability (INOV), which is uncharacteristic of blazars. This lack of INOV detection contrasts with the high duty cycle of INOV observed for a comparison sample of 15 'normal' (i.e., non-BAL) blazars. Some possible implications of this are pointed out.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.