Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis was the most frequent primary glomerular disease, followed by membranous nephropathy and IgA nephropathy. Lupus nephritis predominated over all the other secondary glomerular diseases.
MYH9 polymorphisms have been described to be associated with the risk of CKD in non-diabetic nephropathy, HIV nephropathy and FSGS. Predominating in black descendants, MHY9 genetic variants could partially explain the excess risk of CKD associated with African ancestry. However, recent data suggests that APOL1 gene co-segregate with MYH9, and could be the gene truly associated with CKD risk. In this study, we evaluated the role of MYH9 and APOL1 gene polymorphisms in the risk of CKD in Brazilian patients with lupus nephritis (LN). A retrospective analysis of 196 LN patients was done. MYH9 rs4821480, rs2032487, rs4821481 and rs3752462, APOL 1rs73885319, rs16996616, rs60910145, rs71785313, and APOL3 rs11089781 gene polymorphisms were determined. Genetic ancestry was ascertained both by autossomal ancestry and mitochondrial haplogroup. Primary outcome was defined as doubling of serum creatinine (DC) or end stage renal disease (ESRD). Sixty-two patients presented the PO. In our population, MYH9 and APOL1 were not in LD. None APOL polymorphism was associated with the PO, whereas rs3752462 MYH9 polymorphism showed a positive association (HR3.72, 95%CI 1.47–9.38, p = 0.005). When we analyzed the MYH9 E1 haplotype, the GCCT carriers (1 or 2 alelles present in 29.7% in the PO group vs. 18.5% in controls) showed a significant association to the risk of PO, even after adjustments for baseline estimated creatinine clearance and autossomal ancestry (HR 2.0, 95%CI 1.2–3.4, p = 0.01). Our results show that in our population MYH9, but not APOL1, gene polymorphisms confer an increased risk of CKD in LN patients, independently of race.
Glomerular crescents were analyzed as a prognostic factor in retrospectively reviewed data from 144 patients with biopsy-proven IgA nephropathy. Crescents were found in 26 (18%) patients, and detected in 2 to 100% of glomeruli in each specimen. In 5% of the patients more than 50% of the glomeruli were affected. Thirty patients with IgA nephropathy without crescents were studied as a control group. Mean age was 30.3 ± 9.4 and 30.2 ± 12.0 years for the patients with and without crescents, respectively, and males prevailed in both groups. The length of follow-up was 23.2 ± 41.6 months for patients with crescents and 29.3 ± 35.3 months for patients without crescents. Eighty percent of the patients with crescents were hypertensive, compared to 27% of the non-crescent control group (P < 0.05). Mean serum creatinine at the time of diagnosis was 3.9 ± 2.9 and 1.9 ± 2.1 mg/dl for the patients with and without crescents, respectively. Initial urinary protein excretion was higher in patients with crescents (4.6 ± 3.5 vs 1.2 ± 0.9 g/day; P < 0.05). At the end of follow-up 17 patients (77.3%) from the crescent group and 3 (11.1%) from the non-crescent group had end-stage renal disease (P < 0.0001). The presence of crescents was associated with higher levels of initial serum creatinine and urinary protein excretion, and a higher frequency of hypertension and progression to end-stage renal disease.
Background. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is the most prevalent primary glomerulopathy in Brazil and its incidence is increasing worldwide. Pathogenesis is related to podocyte injury, which may be due to several factors including viruses, drugs, immunology. In 2004, the Columbia classification of FSGS identified five histologic variants of the disease: collapsing (COL), usual (not otherwise specified, NOS), tip lesion (TIP), perihilar (PHI) and cellular variant (CEL). Several studies have demonstrated molecular changes in podocytes of FSGS patients. This study sought to classify a large series of FSGS biopsies according to the Columbia classification and analyze the occurrence of immunohistochemical differences among the five variants.Methods. Approximately 131 cases of renal biopsies with a diagnosis of primary FSGS during the period from 1996-2006 were classified according to the criteria of Columbia and were then submitted to immunohistochemical staining to the following antibodies: CD10, WT-1, Vimentin, Synaptopodin, α-actinin-4, GLEPP-1, cytokeratin (CK) 8-18, CK19 and Ki-67. Results. The FSGS classification resulted in 38.2% of NOS variant, in 36.6% COL, in 14.5% TIP, in 6.9% PHI and in 3.8% CEL. COL variant distinguished themselves among the others for having loss of expression of CD10, WT1 and α-actinin-4 (P < 0.05). Furthermore, COL gained expression of the CK8-18 and CK19 diverging from the other variants (P < 0.05). Conclusions. COL variant of FSGS presented immunohistochemical characteristics that distinguished it from others pointing to additional studies in this area. The distinct immunohistochemical properties of COL might be of help in the comprehension of this aggressive form of FSGS.
As vasculites antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA, anticorpo anticitoplasma de neutrófilos) associadas (VAAs) são caracterizadas por uma inflamação sistêmica das artérias de pequeno e médio calibre (especialmente no trato respiratório superior e inferior, e nos rins). As VAAs compreendem a granulomatose de Wegener (agora chamada de granulomatose com poliangeíte), poliangeíte microscópica, VAA limitada ao rim e a síndrome de Churg-Strauss. Neste artigo, discutiremos as fases de tratamento dessas vasculites, como fase de indução (com ciclofosfamida ou rituximab) e fase de manutenção (com azatioprina, metotrexato ou rituximab). Além disso, discutiremos como manusear os casos refratários à ciclofosfamida.
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