Active and interactive teaching methods are now widely implemented in the educational process. The aim of the study is to consider the problems that arise when using the game approach in the process of teaching in higher professional education and, in particular, when teaching general professional disciplines, as well as to identify possible ways to solve these problems. Educational games are the object of this study. The methodological basis of the study is the analysis of scientific publications, expert assessment and generalized practical experience in identifying the main trends and problems that arise when implementing the game approach. The author examines in detail such aspects of the topic as restrictions on the use of game methods in teaching general professional disciplines, ways to apply the game approach in these conditions, and assess the effectiveness of the proposed game methods. Particular attention is paid to the use of educational games during workshops and seminars. The paper concludes that it is advisable to use individual elements of game methods during ongoing monitoring during practical exercises as an additional (auxiliary) pedagogical tool. This approach is especially important to increase students’ motivation. A number of ways to apply the game approach are proposed. The effectiveness of the proposed game methods in higher professional education is shown.
The rapid change of paradigms of technology development in the XXI century requires flexible thinking from a specialist and a reduction in the degree of stereotypical professional thinking. However, any professional activity is based on a system of stereotypes. This article studies the formation of a system of professional stereotypes among university students in the learning process, and also identifies positive and negative manifestations of the developed system of stereotypes. The methodological basis of the research was the analysis of scientific publications and generalized practical experience. The place of stereotypes in the educational system of the university, the positive and negative qualities of stereotypes, the ways of formation and complexity of changing the system of professional stereotypes, as well as the need for a creative approach to professional activity and periodic changes in stereotypes are considered. It is shown that, on the one hand, university education should contribute to the formation of a system of necessary professional stereotypes among students and the ability to use its advantages competently, on the other - to develop a willingness to adjust this system when the situation changes and change stereotypes in cases of need, to teach to avoid stagnation and to be in constant development, following the principles of continuing education.
The presence of a professional culture is an essential quality of a well-trained specialist, a professional. The article investigates the ways of forming a professional culture among university students. The features of vocational training at the university are considered. It is noted that education is not limited to mastering narrowly professional knowledge and skills. It is shown that the methods of forming a professional culture in a modern university are carried out by a combination of education and training. Moreover, education plays a leading role. These methods are complex in nature, with the presence of both educational and extracurricular forms of educational work. The methods of professional education include specific and non-specific methods, as well as the purposeful allocation by each teacher of individual educational components of professional culture. At the same time, the university is an educational system that provides professional training and the formation of the personality of students, where the education itself at the university and each teacher are elements of the environment for educating professional culture. Formed as a result of studying at a university, the professional culture of a modern specialist is manifested in the ability to comply with professional rules, norms and traditions established by the professional community, combined with a positive attitude towards the chosen profession, understanding the social mission of their profession and awareness of responsibility for making professional decisions.
Much attention has been recently given to examination of developmental peculiarities of cognitive processes of children and adolescents with special abilities. The goal lies in comparative study of the ontogenetic peculiarities of cerebral mechanisms underlying the processing of emotional information in children who are engaged in extracurricular musical and mathematical activities. The sampling included the children engaged in additional activities and the control group, and consisted of the three age groups: 7-10 year, 10-13 years, and 14-17 years. In the conducted experimental studies, the respondents had to identify the emotional intonation of speech in the given phrase. The study revealed the significant ontogenetic differences in perception of emotional prosody of speech between the control group and the children engaged in additional activities. In the group of children of 7-13 years, who are engaged in additional classes, the predominant activity of left hemisphere testifies to the specificity of inter-hemispheric connections in the perception of emotional information. The dependence of the effects of cerebral lateralization on age was analogous in the groups of children engaged in mathematical and musical activities; and differed from the results of the control group, which allows claiming that the interinfluence of mathematical and musical skills is to a certain extent explained by the peculiarities of developmental age of cerebral lateralization in childhood and adolescence.
This article examines the role of humor in educational process of the university. There is a generally accepted opinion that humor is a positive characteristic of teaching and learning. However, it is quite difficult to determine its positive value as far as helping students. Therefore, the subject of this research is the analysis of using humor in the educational process, psychological grounds of its impact, pros and cons of using humor, as well as peculiarities of students’ perception of humor and their response. The methodological framework is comprised of systematization and analysis of scientific publications; generalized practical experience in determination of the key trends and problems using humor in the educational process. The author examines the role of humor in different aspects of the educational process, the impact humor upon motivation and emotional state, use of humor in educational games and nonverbal communication, as well as peculiarities of students' perception of humor, miscomprehension of jokes, and negative humor. It is demonstrated that the proper use of humor in the educational process contributed to position emotional state of students, increases their motivation and interest in learning, reduces anxiety and stress, strengthens confidence, improves performance, and encourages divergent and logical thinking. However, the improper use of humor may entail negative results.
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