The Basidiomycota constitutes a major phylum of the kingdom Fungi and is second in species numbers to the Ascomycota. The present work provides an overview of all validly published, currently used basidiomycete genera to date in a single document. An outline of all genera of Basidiomycota is provided, which includes 1928 currently used genera names, with 1263 synonyms, which are distributed in 241 families, 68 orders, 18 classes and four subphyla. We provide brief notes for each accepted genus including information on classification, number of accepted species, type species, life mode, habitat, distribution, and sequence information. Furthermore, three phylogenetic analyses with combined LSU, SSU, 5.8s, rpb1, rpb2, and ef1 datasets for the subphyla Agaricomycotina, Pucciniomycotina and Ustilaginomycotina are conducted, respectively. Divergence time estimates are provided to the family level with 632 species from 62 orders, 168 families and 605 genera. Our study indicates that the divergence times of the subphyla in Basidiomycota are 406–430 Mya, classes are 211–383 Mya, and orders are 99–323 Mya, which are largely consistent with previous studies. In this study, all phylogenetically supported families were dated, with the families of Agaricomycotina diverging from 27–178 Mya, Pucciniomycotina from 85–222 Mya, and Ustilaginomycotina from 79–177 Mya. Divergence times as additional criterion in ranking provide additional evidence to resolve taxonomic problems in the Basidiomycota taxonomic system, and also provide a better understanding of their phylogeny and evolution.
Mushroom-forming fungi (Agaricomycetes) have the greatest morphological diversity and complexity of any group of fungi. They have radiated into most niches and fulfill diverse roles in the ecosystem, including wood decomposers, pathogens or mycorrhizal mutualists. Despite the importance of mushroom-forming fungi, large-scale patterns of their evolutionary history are poorly known, in part due to the lack of a comprehensive and dated molecular phylogeny. Here, using multigene and genome-based data, we assemble a 5,284-species phylogenetic tree and infer ages and broad patterns of speciation/extinction and morphological innovation in mushroom-forming fungi. Agaricomycetes started a rapid class-wide radiation in the Jurassic, coinciding with the spread of (sub)tropical coniferous forests and a warming climate. A possible mass extinction, several clade-specific adaptive radiations, and morphological diversification of fruiting bodies followed during the Cretaceous and the Paleogene, convergently giving rise to the classic toadstool morphology, with a cap, stalk, and gills (pileate-stipitate morphology). This morphology is associated with increased rates of lineage diversification, suggesting it represents a key innovation in the evolution of mushroom-forming fungi. The increase in mushroom diversity started during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic radiation event, an era of humid climate when terrestrial communities dominated by gymnosperms and reptiles were also expanding.
Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Australia, Chaetopsina eucalypti on Eucalyptus leaf litter, Colletotrichum cobbittiense from Cordyline stricta × C. australis hybrid, Cyanodermella banksiae on Banksia ericifolia subsp. macrantha, Discosia macrozamiae on Macrozamia miquelii, Elsinoë banksiigena on Banksia marginata, Elsinoë elaeocarpi on Elaeocarpus sp., Elsinoë leucopogonis on Leucopogon sp., Helminthosporium livistonae on Livistona australis, Idriellomyces eucalypti (incl. Idriellomyces gen. nov.) on Eucalyptus obliqua, Lareunionomyces eucalypti on Eucalyptus sp., Myrotheciomyces corymbiae (incl. Myrotheciomyces gen. nov., Myrotheciomycetaceae fam. nov.), Neolauriomyces eucalypti (incl. Neolauriomyces gen. nov., Neolauriomycetaceae fam. nov.) on Eucalyptus sp., Nullicamyces eucalypti (incl. Nullicamyces gen. nov.) on Eucalyptus leaf litter, Oidiodendron eucalypti on Eucalyptus maidenii, Paracladophialophora cyperacearum (incl. Paracladophialophoraceae fam. nov.) and Periconia cyperacearum on leaves of Cyperaceae, Porodiplodia livistonae (incl. Porodiplodia gen. nov., Porodiplodiaceae fam. nov.) on Livistona australis, Sporidesmium melaleucae (incl. Sporidesmiales ord. nov.) on Melaleuca sp., Teratosphaeria sieberi on Eucalyptus sieberi, Thecaphora australiensis in capsules of a variant of Oxalis exilis. Brazil, Aspergillus serratalhadensis from soil, Diaporthe pseudoinconspicua from Poincianella pyramidalis, Fomitiporella pertenuis on dead wood, Geastrum magnosporum on soil, Marquesius aquaticus (incl. Marquesius gen. nov.) from submerged decaying twig and leaves of unidentified plant, Mastigosporella pigmentata from leaves of Qualea parviflorae, Mucor souzae from soil, Mycocalia aquaphila on decaying wood from tidal detritus, Preussia citrullina as endophyte from leaves of Citrullus lanatus, Queiroziella brasiliensis (incl. Queiroziella gen. nov.) as epiphytic yeast on leaves of Portea leptantha, Quixadomyces cearensis (incl. Quixadomyces gen. nov.) on decaying bark, Xylophallus clavatus on rotten wood. Canada, Didymella cari on Carum carvi and Coriandrum sativum. Chile, Araucasphaeria foliorum (incl. Araucasphaeria gen. nov.) on Araucaria araucana, Aspergillus tumidus from soil, Lomentospora valparaisensis from soil. Colombia, Corynespora pseudocassiicola on Byrsonima sp., Eucalyptostroma eucalyptorum on Eucalyptus pellita, Neometulocladosporiella eucalypti (incl. Neometulocladosporiella gen. nov.) on Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla, Tracylla eucalypti (incl. Tracyllaceae fam. nov., Tracyllalales ord. nov.) on Eucalyptus urophylla. Cyprus, Gyromitra anthracobia (incl. Gyromitra subg. Pseudoverpa) on burned soil. Czech Republic, Lecanicillium restrictum from the surface of the wooden barrel, Lecanicillium testudineum from scales of Trachemys scripta elegans. Ecuador, Entoloma yanacolor and Saproamanita quitensis on soil. France, Lentithecium carbonneanum from submerged decorticated Populus branch. Hungary, Pleuromyces hungaricus (incl. Pleuromyces ge...
Notes on 113 fungal taxa are compiled in this paper, including 11 new genera, 89 new species, one new subspecies, three new combinations and xx reference specimens. A wide geographic and taxonomic range of fungal taxa are detailed. In the Ascomycota the new genera Angustospora (Testudinaceae), Camporesia (Xylariaceae), Clematidis, Crassiparies (Pleosporales genera incertae sedis), Farasanispora, Longiostiolum (Pleosporales genera incertae sedis), Multilocularia (Parabambusicolaceae), Neophaeocryptopus (Dothideaceae), Parameliola (Pleosporales genera incertae sedis), and Towyspora (Lentitheciaceae) are introduced. Newly introduced species are Angustospora nilensis, Aniptodera
Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows:
Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows:
Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Australia, Austroboletus asper on soil, Cylindromonium alloxyli on leaves of Alloxylon pinnatum, Davidhawksworthia quintiniae on leaves of Quintinia sieberi, Exophiala prostantherae on leaves of Prostanthera sp., Lactifluus lactiglaucus on soil, Linteromyces quintiniae (incl. Linteromyces gen. nov.) on leaves of Quintinia sieberi, Lophotrichus medusoides from stem tissue of Citrus garrawayi, Mycena pulchra on soil, Neocalonectria tristaniopsidis (incl. Neocalonectria gen. nov.)and Xyladictyochaeta tristaniopsidis on leaves of Tristaniopsis collina, Parasarocladium tasmanniae on leaves of Tasmannia insipida, Phytophthora aquae-cooljarloo from pond water, Serendipita whamiae as endophyte from roots of Eriochilus cucullatus, Veloboletus limbatus (incl. Veloboletus gen. nov.)onsoil. Austria, Cortinarius glaucoelotus onsoil. Bulgaria, Suhomyces rilaensis from the gut of Bolitophagus interruptus found on a Polyporus sp. Canada, Cantharellus betularum among leaf litter of Betula, Penicillium saanichii from house dust. Chile, Circinella lampensis on soil, Exophiala embothrii from rhizosphere of Embothrium coccineum. China, Colletotrichum cycadis on leaves of Cycas revoluta. Croatia, Phialocephala melitaea on fallen branch of Pinus halepensis. Czech Republic, Geoglossum jirinae on soil, Pyrenochaetopsis rajhradensis from dead wood of Buxus sempervirens. Dominican Republic, Amanita domingensis on litter of deciduous wood, Melanoleuca dominicana on forest litter. France, Crinipellis nigrolamellata (Martinique) on leaves of Pisonia fragrans, Talaromyces pulveris from bore dust of Xestobium rufovillosum infesting floorboards. French Guiana, Hypoxylon hepaticolor on dead corticated branch. Great Britain, Inocybe ionolepis on soil. India, Cortinarius indopurpurascens among leaf litter of Quercus leucotrichophora. Iran, Pseudopyricularia javanii on infected leaves of Cyperus sp., Xenomonodictys iranica (incl. Xenomonodictys gen. nov.) on wood of Fagus orientalis. Italy, Penicillium vallebormidaense from compost. Namibia, Alternaria mirabibensis on plant litter, Curvularia moringae and Moringomyces phantasmae (incl. Moringomyces gen. nov.) on leaves and flowers of Moringa ovalifolia, Gobabebomyces vachelliae (incl. Gobabebomyces gen. nov.) on leaves of Vachellia erioloba, Preussia procaviae on dung of Procavia capensis. Pakistan, Russula shawarensis from soil on forest floor. Russia, Cyberlindnera dauci from Daucus carota. South Africa, Acremonium behniae on leaves of Behnia reticulata, Dothiora aloidendri and Hantamomyces aloidendri (incl. Hantamomyces gen. nov.) on leaves of Aloidendron dichotomum, Endoconidioma euphorbiae on leaves of Euphorbia mauritanica , Eucasphaeria proteae on leaves of Protea neriifolia , Exophiala mali from inner fruit tissue of Malus sp., Graminopassalora geissorhizae on leaves of Geissorhiza splendidissima, Neocamarosporium leipoldtiae on leaves of Leipoldtia schultzii, Neocladosporium osteospermi on leaf spots of Osteospermum moniliferum, Neometulocladosporiella seifertii on leaves of Combretum caffrum, Paramyrothecium pituitipietianum on stems of Grielum humifusum, Phytopythium paucipapillatum from roots of Vitis sp., Stemphylium carpobroti and Verrucocladosporium carpobroti on leaves of Carpobrotus quadrifolius, Suttonomyces cephalophylli on leaves of Cephalophyllum pilansii. Sweden, Coprinopsis rubra on cow dung, Elaphomyces nemoreus fromdeciduouswoodlands. Spain, Polyscytalum pini-canariensis on needles of Pinus canariensis, Pseudosubramaniomyces septatus from stream sediment, Tuber lusitanicum on soil under Quercus suber. Thailand, Tolypocladium flavonigrum on Elaphomyces sp. USA, Chaetothyrina spondiadis on fruits of Spondias mombin, Gymnascella minnisii from bat guano, Juncomyces patwiniorum on culms of Juncus effusus, Moelleriella puertoricoensis on scale insect, Neodothiora populina (incl. Neodothiora gen. nov.) on stem cankers of Populus tremuloides, Pseudogymnoascus palmeri fromcavesediment. Vietnam, Cyphellophora vietnamensis on leaf litter, Tylopilus subotsuensis on soil in montane evergreen broadleaf forest. Morphological and culture characteristics are supported by DNA barcodes.
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