Elimination of heavy metals from contaminated streams is of prime concern due to their ability to cause toxic chaos with the metabolism of flora and fauna alike. Use of advanced nano-engineered technologies such as the innovative combination of surface chemistry, chemical engineering fundamentals and nanotechnology opens up particularly attractive horizons towards treatment of heavy metal contaminated water resources. The obtained product of surface engineered nanoadsorbent produced has successfully proven to show rapid adsorption rate and superior sorption efficiency towards the removal of a wide range of defiant heavy metal contaminants in wastewater. The use of these materials in water treatment results in markedly improved performance features like large surface area, good volumetric potential, extra shelf-lifetime, less mechanical stress, stability under operational conditions with excellent sorption behaviour, no secondary pollution, strong chelating capabilities and they are easy to recover and reuse. This review intends to serve as a one-stop-reference by bringing together all the recent research works on nanoparticles synthesis and its advantages as adsorbents in the treatment of heavy metal polluted wastewater that have so far been undertaken, thereby providing researchers with a deep insight and bridging the gap between past, present and future of the elegant nanosorbents.
In this study, Pleurotus dryinus was grown on municipal biosolids (BS) as the substrate to produce laccase for the removal of pesticides (fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides) from wastewater. Among the various types of BS tested, sterilized biosolids were the most promising substrate for laccase production by P. dryinus with a maximal laccase activity (162.1 ± 21.1 U/g dry substrate), followed by hygenized biosolids (96.7 ± 17.6 U/g dry substrate), unsterilized biosolids (UBS) (31.9 ± 1.2 U/g dry substrate), and alkali-treated biosolids (8.2 ± 0.4 U/g dry substrate). The ultrasound-assisted extraction of this enzyme from fermented UBS was carried out with 0.1 M phosphate buffer at pH 7.0, which increased the enzyme activity of the crude extract by 30%. To test the catalytic potential of the biocatalyst in real matrices, 1 U/ml of recovered crude laccase extract was applied for 24 h for the removal of 29 pesticides (nine fungicides, 10 herbicides, and 10 insecticides) either separately or as a mixture from spiked biologically treated wastewater effluent. When treated with crude enzyme extract, high-priority herbicides metolachlor and atrazine were completely removed, while 93%–97% of the insecticides aldicarb, spinosad, and azinphos-methyl and up to 91% of kresoxim-methyl were removed. Promising results were obtained with BS-derived crude enzyme extract exhibiting improved pesticides removal, which may be due to the mediator effect resulting from the catalytic transformation of other molecules in the cocktail. The results demonstrated a promising integrated bioprocess for the removal of pesticides in wastewater using crude laccase obtained from BS.
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