RESUMO.Apresentam-se os resultados de levantamentos florístico e fitossociológico em remanescente de Floresta Ombrófila Densa Submontana circunjacente à barragem do rio São Bento, objetivando fornecer dados primários para ações de restauração e conservação desta formação. A área está localizada no Sul de Santa Catarina, município de Siderópolis. Utilizou-se como área amostral um hectare e foram registrados indivíduos com DAP ≥ 5 cm e quantificados seus descritores estruturais. Foram identificadas 107 espécies, pertencentes a 42 famílias botânicas, totalizando 1.715 indivíduos. As espécies com maiores valores de importância (VI) foram Euterpe edulis Mart., Casearia sylvestris Sw. e Bathysa australis (St.-Hil.) K. Schum. Entre as espécies identificadas, encontrou-se elevado índice de zoofilia e zoocoria. Pela característica florística e abundância de serapilheira, a área encontra-se em estádio avançado de regeneração natural.Palavras-chave: riqueza específica, descritores estruturais, reservatório artificial, Mata Atlântica, restauração.ABSTRACT. Floristic composition and phytosociological structure in a submontane ombrophilous dense forest at São Bento river dam, Siderópolis, Santa Catarina State. Aiming to provide primary data to be used in restoration programs, data from a floristic and phytosociological survey at a Submontane Ombrophilous Dense Forest remnant around São Bento river dam (Siderópolis municipality, Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil) are presented. All tree individuals with a diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 5 cm were recorded (1 ha plot). 1,715 individuals belonging to 107 species and 42 botanical families were identified. Euterpe edulis Mart., Casearia sylvestris Sw. and Bathysa australis (St.-Hil.) K.Schum. were the species with higher values of structural importance. High index of zoophily and zoochory were registered among the identified species. From the floristic composition and litter abundance, it can be assumed that the studied area corresponds to an advanced stage of natural regeneration.Key words: species richness, community descriptors, artificial reservoir, Atlantic Forest, restoration. Introdução Introdução Introdução IntroduçãoO Brasil possui a flora mais rica do mundo, quase 19% da flora mundial, considerado como um dos hotspots mundiais, ou seja, uma das prioridades para conservação da biodiversidade em todo o mundo, especialmente na Mata Atlântica (MYERS et al., 2000). Entretanto, os conhecimentos gerados são ainda insuficientes, sendo necessário maior número de inventários e estudos biológicos (GIULIETTI et al., 2005).A Mata Atlântica, dentro dos ecossistemas mundiais, é destaque devido ao ritmo acelerado de devastação ambiental. Estima-se que, da área de abrangência total, restam apenas de 7 a 8% da floresta original (GALINDO-LEAL;CÂMARA, 2005) (BRASIL, 1994), levando a área a uma condição ciliar, sendo obrigatória sua preservação. Tais considerações, detalhadas na legislação, apresentam estreita relação entre as questões da proteção da flora e da fauna e a proteção aos...
Epiphytes are hyper‐diverse and one of the frequently undervalued life forms in plant surveys and biodiversity inventories. Epiphytes of the Atlantic Forest, one of the most endangered ecosystems in the world, have high endemism and radiated recently in the Pliocene. We aimed to (1) compile an extensive Atlantic Forest data set on vascular, non‐vascular plants (including hemiepiphytes), and lichen epiphyte species occurrence and abundance; (2) describe the epiphyte distribution in the Atlantic Forest, in order to indicate future sampling efforts. Our work presents the first epiphyte data set with information on abundance and occurrence of epiphyte phorophyte species. All data compiled here come from three main sources provided by the authors: published sources (comprising peer‐reviewed articles, books, and theses), unpublished data, and herbarium data. We compiled a data set composed of 2,095 species, from 89,270 holo/hemiepiphyte records, in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay, recorded from 1824 to early 2018. Most of the records were from qualitative data (occurrence only, 88%), well distributed throughout the Atlantic Forest. For quantitative records, the most common sampling method was individual trees (71%), followed by plot sampling (19%), and transect sampling (10%). Angiosperms (81%) were the most frequently registered group, and Bromeliaceae and Orchidaceae were the families with the greatest number of records (27,272 and 21,945, respectively). Ferns and Lycophytes presented fewer records than Angiosperms, and Polypodiaceae were the most recorded family, and more concentrated in the Southern and Southeastern regions. Data on non‐vascular plants and lichens were scarce, with a few disjunct records concentrated in the Northeastern region of the Atlantic Forest. For all non‐vascular plant records, Lejeuneaceae, a family of liverworts, was the most recorded family. We hope that our effort to organize scattered epiphyte data help advance the knowledge of epiphyte ecology, as well as our understanding of macroecological and biogeographical patterns in the Atlantic Forest. No copyright restrictions are associated with the data set. Please cite this Ecology Data Paper if the data are used in publication and teaching events.
The objective of this work was to select indigenous vegetal species for restoration programs aiming at the regeneration of ombrophilous dense forest. Thirty-five spoil piles located in the county of Sideropolis, Santa Catarina, that received overburden disposal for 39 years were selected for study because they exhibited remarkable spontaneous regrowth of trees compared to surrounding spoil piles. Floristic inventory covered the whole area of the 35 piles, whereas survey on phytosociology and natural regeneration studies were conducted in 70 plots distributed along the 35 piles. Floristic inventory recorded 83 species from 28 botanical families. Herbaceous terricolous plants constituted the predominant species (47.0%), followed by shrubs (26.5%), trees (19.3%), and vines (7.2%). Results from surveys on phytosociology and natural regeneration, focused on shrubs and trees, recorded incipient ecological succession. In addition, the most adapted species recorded on the overburden piles, as ranked by index of natural regeneration (RNT) plus importance value index (IVI), were as follows: Clethra scabra (RNT ¼ 23.93%; IVI ¼ 17.28%), Myrsine coriacea (RNT ¼ 20.93%, IVI ¼ 11.26%), Eupatorium intermedium (RNT ¼ 7.56%,, and Baccharis dracunculifolia (RNT ¼ 2.28%; IVI ¼ 0.56%). High values of IVI and RNT exhibited by the exotic species Eucalyptus saligna (IVI ¼ 21.73%, RNT ¼ 51.41%) indicated strong competition between exotic and indigenous species. Severe chemical (acidic pH and lack of nutrients) and physical (coarse substrate and slope angle of 40-50°) characteristics displayed by the overburden piles constituted limitations to floristic diversity and size of indigenous trees, indicating the need for substrate reclamation prior to forest restoration.
Several studies have reported biological effects of Mikania glomerata and Mikania laevigata, used in Brazilian folk medicine for respiratory diseases. Pneumoconiosis is characterized by pulmonary inflammation caused by coal dust exposure. In this work, we evaluated the effect of pretreatment with M. glomerata and M. laevigata extracts (MGE and MLE, respectively) (100 mg/kg, s.c.) on inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in lung of rats subjected to a single coal dust intratracheal instillation. Rats were pretreated for 2 weeks with saline solution, MGE, or MLE. On day 15, the animals were anesthetized, and gross mineral coal dust or saline solutions were administered directly in the lung by intratracheal instillation. Fifteen days after coal dust instillation, the animals were killed. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was obtained; total cell count and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were determined. In the lung, myeloperoxidase activity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) level, and protein carbonyl and sulfhydryl contents were evaluated. In BAL of treated animals, we verified an increased total cell count and LDH activity. MGE and MLE prevented the increase in cell count, but only MLE prevented the increase in LDH. Myeloperoxidase and TBARS levels were not affected, protein carbonylation was increased, and the protein thiol levels were decreased by acute coal dust intratracheal administration. The findings also suggest that both extracts present an important protective effect on the oxidation of thiol groups. Moreover, pretreatment with MGE and MLE also diminished lung inflammatory infiltration induced by coal dust, as assessed by histopathologic analyses. The present study indicates that M. glomerata and M. laevigata might become good candidates for the prevention of lung oxidative injury caused by coal dust exposure.
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Phenological studies assist in forest ecosystems comprehension and evaluation of resource availability for wildlife, as well as in improving the understanding of relationships between plants and their pollinators and dispersers. This study aims to describe the reproductive phenophases of riparian plant species and correlate them with climatic variables. The reproductive phenology was analyzed biweekly throughout one year, recording the absence or presence of flowers/fruits. The flowering phenophase occurred throughout the year, with an increase in number of species in blossom in October, November, and December. The flowering peak of the community was observed in November. The fruiting phenophase also occurred throughout the year and showed an increase of species fruiting in June with a slight decrease in August and September. The data obtained in this study, when compared with other studies in different Atlantic Rainforest areas, indicates a seasonal pattern for the flowering phenophase and a variation in fruit availability throughout the year as well as in the fruiting peaks. Therefore, studies that observe flowering and fruiting events in loco are of main importance because they provide information on reproductive seasons of species for use in environmental restoration projects and thus alleviate the situation of degradation of riparian forests.
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