This study has the objective of evaluating the stability of B complex vitamins and its vitamers, for a period of 1year of storage. The pollen samples were stored under room temperature (with and without light) and frozen. The vitamins were quantified by HPLC with fluorescence detection. All proposed vitamins were found in the samples and the dehydration process did not interfere in vitamin content. The variations were (dry basis): 0.59-1.09mg/100g (B(1)); 1.73-2.56 (B(2)); 6.43-15.34 (PP) and 0.33-0.68 (B(6)). After 1year of storage, it can be stated that vitamin B(1) concentration remained constant, while for the others, the concentration loss was dependent on time rather than on storage conditions. All samples were considered vitamin B(2) sources. The influence of the storage time in the concentrations of vitamin B(6) and PP was explained mathematically, through linear regression equations of multivariate analysis.
Sixty-two commercial samples of dehydrated bee pollen (Apis mellifera bees) collected in Brazil (eight states and the Federal District) were analyzed for commercial quality (moisture, ash, lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates), and hygiene (aerobic mesophiles, yeasts and molds, coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and sulfite-reducing Clostridium). The analyzed samples were within the regulatory limits established by the legislation for ash, lipid and protein, except for moisture content. The analyzed hygiene parameters evaluated for bee pollen are not regulated by the Brazilian legislation, and the data discussed can contribute to regulatory agencies. Only moderate and weak correlations were observed between dehydrated pollen samples and the parameters evaluated. Calidad microbioló gica y caracterizació n fisicoquímica del polen de abeja Se analizó la calidad comercial (humedad, cenizas, lípidos, proteínas e hidratos de carbono) e higiene (mesó filos aeró bicos, levaduras y mohos, coliformes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus y Clostridium reductor de sulfito) de 62 muestras comerciales de polen de abejas deshidratadas (Apis mellifera abejas) recogidas en Brasil (ocho estados y el Distrito Federal). Las muestras analizadas se encontraban dentro de los límites reglamentarios establecidos por la legislació n para las cenizas, lípidos y proteínas, con excepció n del contenido de humedad. Los parámetros de higiene analizados para el polen de abejas no están regulados por la legislació n brasileña y los datos discutidos pueden ser distribuidos a los organismos reguladores. Só lo se observaron correlaciones moderadas y débiles entre muestras de polen deshidratadas y los parámetros evaluados.
Bee pollen has been promoted as a dietary supplement for humans due to its nutritional and bioactive properties. Sixty-two samples of Apis mellifera dehydrated bee pollen collected in Brazil (eight states and Federal District) were analyzed for phenolic compounds, flavonoids, antioxidant activity using DPPH, b-carotene and ORAC methods, and antimicrobial activity. The values obtained for total phenolic compounds ranged from 12.60 to 84.22 mg GAE/g bee pollen while total flavonoids oscillated between 1.90 and 36.85 mg quercetin/g bee pollen. The IC 50 ranged from 0.35 to 13.42 mg bee pollen/mL of extract. The inhibition percentages ranged from 52.58 to 98.37% of bee pollen extract using the b-carotene method. When measured by the ORAC method, antioxidant activity was between 132.98 and 575.85 lmols eq. Trolox/g bee pollen. Bee pollen efficiently inhibited the growth of all the microorganisms studied. Candida albicans was the most resistant, while Staphylococcus epidermides was the most sensitive.
Aos meus queridos irmãos Vanderson e Vanderci pelo carinho, apoio e compreensão em todos os momentos difíceis, pelas alegrias e companheirismo. DEDICO. AGRADECIMENTOS E foi mais rápido do que parecia ser... Sofrimento, conquistas, crescimento, lamentações, mas também muitos risos, gestos de amizade, de companheirismo e tantos agradecimentos a serem feitos... Primeiramente, à Profa. Dra. Ligia Bicudo de Almeida Muradian, por sua confiança, por acreditar em meu potencial, pelo carinho com que me recebeu e orientou na realização desta pesquisa, por todos os conselhos. Obrigada pelos conselhos e por me ensinar a valorizar meu trabalho e idéias.
Recent research on Vitamin K has shown its importance in maintaining vascular and bone health. Brazilian food composition tables do not show phylloquinone content in national foods. These data are needed to obtain more reliable results in nutritional status assessment studies of individuals in relation to this vitamin as studies have shown a geographical influence in food phylloquinone content. This study aims to determine phylloquinone (Vitamin K 1 ) levels in its most important source: dark green leaved vegetables. Several varieties of vegetables were purchased directly from CEAGESP (General Warehouse Company of São Paulo) at different times. Phylloquinone was extracted using organic solvents and quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography -HPLC. Results show the concentrations of phylloquinone in commonly consumed foodstuffs. In general, results showed variations with data from literature on the amount of Vitamin K in the plants analysed.
Zea mays L. is one of the biggest cropping systems among the sustainable development agronomy. Pollen from this crop source is unexplored and apiculture can be a good partner adding value to the product and creating new jobs helping to solve some social issues as unemployment. However, food safety is crucial, thus the aim of this study was to explore the flavonoid/phenolic profiles from Z. mays L. pollen as a fingerprint for this plant identification and also to demonstrate how the method of bee pollen samples (honeybee collected pollen) is applied. For this purpose, several sources of Z. mays L. pollen were analyzed, including corn hybrids and genetic modified samples collected at the breeding fields. For this work, samples were taken at several years from 2000 to 2012 and collected from different countries and locations, such as Portugal, Mexico and Brazil. Results showed, for the first time, that the fingerprint (flavonoid/phenolic profile) for Z. mays L. pollen does not change over the time of sampling neither with the region of harvesting. The high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC/DAD) fingerprints of phenolic/flavonoid extract from Z. mays remain unchanged for all samples analyzed from different countries, hybrids and/or genetic modified plants. This is also the first study reporting these phenolic compounds not only in pollen collected directly from hybrid plants, but also in Z. mays bee pollen. The described fingerprinting method is easy, fast and accurate for the characterization of Z. mays L. pollen samples and complete microscopic analysis because it is species-specific.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.