This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition, identify the bioactive compounds and measure the antioxidant activity present in blackberry, red raspberry, strawberry, sweet cherry and blueberry fruits produced in the subtropical areas of Brazil and to verify that the chemical properties of these fruit are similar when compared to the temperate production zones. Compared with berries and cherries grown in temperate climates, the centesimal composition and physical chemical characteristics found in the Brazilian berries and cherries are in agreement with data from the literature. For the mineral composition, the analyzed fruits presented lower concentrations of P, K, Ca, Mg and Zn and higher levels of Fe. The values found for the bioactive compounds generally fit the ranges reported in the literature with minor differences. The greatest difference was found in relation to ascorbic acid, as all fruits analyzed showed levels well above those found in the literature.
A wide spectrum of potential energy barriers exists for binary Lennard-Jones systems. Here we examine the barriers and cage-breaking rearrangements that are pertinent to long-term diffusion. Single-step cage-breaking processes, which follow high-barrier routes, are identified, and different methods and criteria for defining a cage-breaking process are considered. We examine the extent to which a description of cage-breaking within the energy landscape is a description of long-term diffusion. This description includes the identification of cage-breaks that are reversed, and those that are productive towards long-term diffusion. At low temperatures, diffusion is adequately described by productive cage-breaks, or by considering all cage-breaks and accounting for the effect of reversals. To estimate the diffusion constant we require only the mean square displacement of a cage-break, the average waiting time for a cage-break, and a measure of the number of reversed cage-breaks. Cage-breaks can be visualized within the potential energy landscape using disconnectivity graphs, and we compare the use of productive cage-breaks with previous definitions of "megabasins" or "metabasins."
Connectivity in the potential energy landscape of a binary Lennard-Jones system can be characterized at the level of cage-breaking. We calculate the number of cage-breaking routes from a given local minimum and determine the branching probabilities at different temperatures, along with correlation factors that represent the repeated reversals of cage-breaking events. The number of reversals increases at lower temperatures and for more fragile systems, while the number of accessible connections decreases. We therefore associate changes in connectivity with super-Arrhenius behavior. Reversals in minimum-to-minimum transitions are common, but often correspond to "non-cage-breaking" processes. We demonstrate that the average waiting time within a minimum shows simple exponential behavior with decreasing temperature. To describe the long-term behavior of the system, we consider reversals and connectivity in terms of the "cage-breaking" processes that are pertinent to diffusion [V. K. de Souza and D. J. Wales, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 164507 (2008)]. These cage-breaking events can be modeled by a correlated random walk. Thus, a full correlation factor can be calculated using short simulations that extend up to two cage-breaking events.
For a sweetener to successfully replace sucrose in food formulations, studies must first be conducted to determine the concentrations of the sweeteners to be used and their equivalent sweetness compared with sucrose. After establishing the optimal concentration of each sweetener, it is necessary to determine which is more similar to sucrose. The objective of this study was to determine the equivalent amount of different sweeteners, necessary to promote the same degree of ideal sweetness in mixed fruit (marolo, sweet passion fruit and soursop) jam and to characterise the time-intensity profile and consumer acceptance. With respect to the mixed fruit jam containing 40% (w/w) of sucrose, sucralose presented the highest sweetening power, being 1033.59 times sweeter than sucrose, followed by sucralose/acesulfame-K/neotame 5:3:0.1 (982.80), sucralose/steviol glycoside 2:1 (862.67), sucralose/acesulfame-K 3:1 (847.45) and sucralose/thaumatin 1:0.6 (284.29). The sweeteners had a time-intensity sweetness profile similar to sucrose and a timeintensity bitterness profile different from sucrose but similar among themselves. In relation to sensory acceptance, a significant difference between the low-sugar jam and the traditional jam was not observed. Sweeteners in mixed fruit jam V. R. de Souza et al. Sucralose/ acesulfame-K/ neotame (5:3:0.1) 0.8434 0.6070 0.979 S = 6.9727C 0.6070 Figure 2 Time-intensity profile of mixed fruit jam samples of sucrose and each sweetener for sweetness (a) and bitterness (b).
For a sweetener to successfully replace sucrose in food formulations, studies must first determine the necessary concentration of the sweetener to be used and its equivalent sweetness to sucrose. In this study, we verified both the equivalent sweetness and the magnitude of sweetness of processed cheese sweetened with different sweeteners and combinations of sweeteners. A total of four formulations were evaluated: sucralose, sucralose/acesulfame‐K (4:1), thaumatin/sucralose (2:1) and cyclamate/saccharin (1:1). First, the sweetness was determined using the ideal scale. Next, we determined the equivalent sweetness compared to sucrose (considered to be ideal in terms of sweetness) for each sweetener studied and evaluated its sweetness through the magnitude estimation method. The concentration of sucrose considered ideal in strawberry petit suisse was 17%. To promote a sweetness equivalent to the ideal (17% sucrose) sucralose, sucralose/acesulfame‐K (4:1), thaumatin/sucralose (2:1) and cyclamate/saccharin (1:1) sweeteners should be added to processed cheese at concentrations of 0.065%, 0.066%, 0.108% and 0.349%, respectively.
The purpose of this work is to study the use of sweeteners, including thaumatin in petit suisse. The study of sweeteners in this product is important because currently consumers yearn for more healthy products and the fact of not having many studies related to this product. Therefore, this work supports the development of a new product, with more consumer desires and contributing to the competitiveness of the market.
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