The measurement of efficiency in higher education has gained a growing interest in recent years, especially due to the expansion of the university system. This paper provides a review of the literature on efficiency in higher education institutions by covering empirical articles which applied frontier efficiency measurement techniques from 1997 to 2019. We review the methodological approaches used, both parametric and non-parametric techniques, such as Data Envelopment Analysis, Malmquist index and Stochastic Frontier Analysis. Secondly, we list the applied inputs, input prices, outputs, quality, and environment variables and based on the overview, we discuss the advantages and drawbacks of the different empirical proxy variables used. We address the importance of characterizing students and research funding as raw materials of both the teaching and research services, respectively, and we provide suggestions on how to deal with them empirically. We also discuss the difference between quality and environmental variables, and we give some practical indications to distinguish them in doubtful cases.
Prior to the recent implementation of the Argentine Integrated Social Security System (SIPA -Sistema Integrado Previsional Argentino), the 2007 reform represented the first major change in Argentina's old-age social security system since 1994. For the first time, workers contributing to the private defined-contribution individual accounts scheme were able to choose freely to move over to the public pay-as-you-go (PAYG) scheme. This study is an attempt to analyse the special characteristics of those who opted for transfer to the public PAYG scheme and to discover whether the behaviour of these individuals is in line with that of a "simulated worker" attempting to optimize income. The analysis includes an estimate of the probability that individuals with certain characteristics will transfer.
This paper reviews the most recent empirical literature that assesses efficiency in higher education. We analyze 76 studies ranging from 1997 to 2018 and classify them according to the methodologies applied and to the definitions used to describe the outputs, inputs, quality and the context variables. We find that 72 percent of the empirical studies use non-parametric approaches. The most recent studies use panel data. The degrees completed are the most frequently used output variable, and only 9 papers include quality variables. Moreover, while only few parametric papers take observed heterogeneity into account, more than 40 percent include environmental variables to address for observed heterogeneity. This review is useful for researchers interested in measuring efficiency, for policy makers and for other educational stakeholders.
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AbstractAt the time of Argentina´s greenhouse gases emissions reduction voluntary commitment, most of the articles on intensity targets had not been published. The aim of this paper is to (re)discuss briefly the proposal made by Argentina taking into account that literature. To justify the adopted target form and stringency, we compare fixed and dynamic targets in terms of the likelihood of "hot air", the relationship between allowed emissions and GDP, the link between abatement and GDP, and outcomes´ dispersion. But, the assumptions implicit in the design of the target may change those properties. We show how the BAU scenario taken as reference and the level of emissions reduction affects targets´ design and characteristics. Finally, considering different emissions projections, we perform a comparison between allowed emissions and projected ones during the first half commitment period (2008)(2009)(2010), concluding that compliance with the commitment depends on the data source used in the calculations.
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