Methanogenesis is an ancient metabolism of key ecological relevance, with direct impact on the evolution of Earth’s climate. Recent results suggest that the diversity of methane metabolisms and their derivations have probably been vastly underestimated. Here, by probing thousands of publicly available metagenomes for homologues of methyl-coenzyme M reductase complex (MCR), we have obtained ten metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) belonging to potential methanogenic, anaerobic methanotrophic and short-chain alkane oxidizing archaea. Five of these MAGs represent under-sampled (e.g., Verstraetearchaeota, Methanonatronarchaeia, ANME-1) or previously genomically undescribed (ANME-2c) archaeal lineages. The remaining five MAGs correspond to lineages that are only distantly related to previously known methanogens and span the entire archaeal phylogeny. Comprehensive comparative annotation significantly expands the metabolic diversity and energy conservation systems of MCR-bearing archaea. It also suggests the potential existence of a yet uncharacterized type of methanogenesis linked to short-chain alkane/fatty acid oxidation in a previously undescribed class of archaea (‘
. Methanoliparia’). We redefine a common core of marker genes specific to methanogenic, anaerobic methanotrophic and short-chain alkane-oxidizing archaea, and propose a possible scenario for the evolutionary and functional transitions that led to the emergence of such metabolic diversity.
Objective To evaluate the interday reproducibility, agreement and validity of the construct of short version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 applied to adolescents.Methods The sample consisted of adolescents of both sexes, aged between 10 and 19 years, who were recruited from schools and sports centers. The validity of the construct was performed by exploratory factor analysis, and reliability was calculated for each construct using the intraclass correlation coefficient, standard error of measurement and the minimum detectable change.Results The factor analysis combining the items corresponding to anxiety and stress in a single factor, and depression in a second factor, showed a better match of all 21 items, with higher factor loadings in their respective constructs. The reproducibility values for depression were intraclass correlation coefficient with 0.86, standard error of measurement with 0.80, and minimum detectable change with 2.22; and, for anxiety/stress: intraclass correlation coefficient with 0.82, standard error of measurement with 1.80, and minimum detectable change with 4.99.Conclusion The short version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 showed excellent values of reliability, and strong internal consistency. The two-factor model with condensation of the constructs anxiety and stress in a single factor was the most acceptable for the adolescent population.
O objetivo deste estudo qualitativo foi compreender a percepção do enfermeiro sobre a supervisão das atividades realizadas em sala de vacina de unidades de atenção primária à saúde. As salas selecionadas fizeram parte de estudo preliminar, com abordagem quantitativa, que analisou as melhores salas de vacina da Macrorregião Oeste de Minas Gerais, das quais 12 salas atenderam a 100% dos critérios estruturais. Foram entrevistados os enfermeiros responsáveis por essas salas e os dados obtidos submetidos à análise de conteúdo na modalidade temática. Os resultados demonstraram ausência de um processo de supervisão pelos enfermeiros, o que pode ter ocorrido pela quantidade de ações assumidas por eles. O enfermeiro necessita de atitude proativa com ações educativas e acompanhamento mais efetivo das atividades em sala de vacina, evitando a ocorrência de falhas nos procedimentos que podem acarretar reflexo na qualidade dos imunobiológicos, disponibilizados para a população.
Quercetin and rutin are well-know flavonoids. In spite of this, the comprehension of their metabolism is still incomplete. In this work, the cytotoxic activity of quercetin and rutin and its metabolites produced by metabolism of filamentous fungi was investigated. Flavonoids metabolism was monitored by HPLC and LC-MS. Both flavonoids were extensively metabolized. Quercetin was converted into metabolite methylquercetin (2) and quercetin glucuronide (3) and rutin into metabolite rutin sulphate (5), methylrutin (6) and rutin glucuronide (7). Cytotoxic effects of rutin, quercetin and its metabolites were measured by MTT tetrazolium reduction test and the trypan blue exclusion assay on HL-60 leukemic cells. The results showed similar concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect for rutin and rutin sulphate (5), while no cytotoxic effect was detected with the metabolites 6 and 7. In relation to the quercetin and its metabolites the results showed that all compounds have a similar concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on HL-60 cells. These findings corroborate the literature, showing that bioconversion is a useful strategy for production of biological active metabolites.
RESUMO A falta de integração entre os serviços que compõem a rede de atenção à saúde, além da incapacidade de muitos profissionais, são apontadas como causas da problemática para o controle da tuberculose no Brasil. Este estudo avaliou o grau de implantação do Programa de Controle de Tuberculose (PCT) em Divinópolis (MG). Trata-se de uma pesquisa avaliativa na perspectiva de análise de implantação. O PCT encontra-se parcialmente implantado. Como limitações, destacam-se a deficiência de gestão e planejamento, e a insuficiência de profissionais capacitados e insumos. Sugere-se a descentralização das ações do PCT e o aumento das ações de vigilância como possíveis soluções para a melhoria da assistência e da prevenção.PALAVRAS-CHAVE Tuberculose. Atenção Primária à Saúde. Avaliação de programas e projetos de saúde.
ABSTRACT The lack of integration between health care services network, in addition to the inefficiency of health professionals, are some of the identified problems for the control of Tuberculosis in Brazil. This study evaluated the level of implementation of the Tuberculosis Control Program (PCT) in Divinopolis (MG). The results signalize that PCT is partially implemented
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