We discuss the need of including tensor terms in the effective Gogny interaction used in meanfield calculations. We show in one illustrative case that, with the usual tensor term that is employed in the Skyrme interaction (and that allows us to separate the like-nucleon and the neutron-proton tensor contributions), we can describe the evolution of the N = 28 neutron gap in calcium isotopes.We propose to include a tensor and a tensor-isospin term in finite-range interactions of Gogny type. The parameters of the two tensor terms allow us to treat separately the like-nucleon and the neutron-proton contributions. Two parameterizations of the tensor terms have been chosen to reproduce different neutron single-particle properties in the 48 Ca nucleus and the energy of the first 0 − state in the 16 O nucleus. By employing these two parameterizations we analyze the evolution of the N = 14, 28, and 90 neutron energy gaps in oxygen, calcium and tin isotopes, respectively.We show that the combination of the parameters governing the like-nucleon contribution is crucial to correctly reproduce the experimental (where available) or shell-model trends for the evolution of the three neutron gaps under study.

We present a study of the effects of the tensor-isospin term of the effective interaction in Hartree-Fock and random-phase approximation calculations. We used finite-range forces of Gogny type, and we added to them a tensor-isospin term which behaves, at large internucleonic distances, as the analogous term of the microscopic interactions. The strength of this tensor force has been chosen to reproduce the experimental energy of the lowest 0 − excited state in 16 O, which shows large sensitivity to this term of the interaction. With these finite-range interactions, we have studied the effects of the tensor-isospin force in ground and excited states of carbon, oxygen, calcium, nickel, zirconium, tin, and lead isotopes. Our results show that the tensor force affects mainly the nucleon single-particle energies. However, we found some interesting cases where also bulk nuclear properties are sensitive to the tensor interaction.

We present the first applications of the second random-phase-approximation model with the finiterange Gogny interaction. We discuss the advantages of using such an interaction in this type of calculations where 2 particle-2 hole configurations are included. The results found in the present work confirm the well known general features of the second random-phase approximation spectra: we find a large shift, several MeV, of the response centroids to lower energies with respect to the corresponding random-phase-approximation values. As known, these results indicate that the effects of the 1 particle-1 hole/2 particle-2 hole and 2 particle-2 hole/2 particle-2 hole couplings are important. It has been found that the changes of the strength distributions with respect to the standard random-phase-approximation results are particularly large in the present case. This important effect is due to some large neutron-proton matrix elements of the interaction and indicates that these matrix elements (which do not contribute in the mean-field calculations employed in the conventional fit procedures of the force parameters) should be carefully constrained to perform calculations beyond the mean-field approach.

We study the evolution of the (e, e p) cross section on nuclei with increasing asymmetry between the number of neutrons and protons. The calculations are done within the framework of the distorted-wave impulse approximation, by adopting nonrelativistic and relativistic models. We compare the results obtained with three different approaches based on the mean-field description for the proton bound-state wave function. In the nonrelativistic model phenomenological Woods-Saxon and Hartree-Fock wave functions are used; in the relativistic model the wave functions are solutions of Dirac-Hartree equations. The models are first tested against experimental data on 16 O, 40 Ca, and 48 Ca nuclei, and then they are applied to calculate (e, e p) cross sections for a set of spherical calcium and oxygen isotopes. From the comparison of the results obtained for the various isotopes we can infer information about the dependence of the various ingredients of the models on the neutron to proton asymmetry.

We have studied the low lying magnetic spectra of 12 C, 16 O, 40 Ca, 48 Ca and 208 Pb nuclei within the Random Phase Approximation (RPA) theory, finding that the description of low-lying magnetic states of doubly-closed-shell nuclei imposes severe constraints on the spin and tensor terms of the nucleon-nucleon effective interaction. We have first made an investigation by using four phenomenological effective interactions and we have obtained good agreement with the experimental magnetic spectra, and, to a lesser extent, with the electron scattering responses. Then we have made selfconsistent RPA calculations to test the validity of the finite-range D1 Gogny interaction. For all the nuclei under study we have found that this interaction inverts the energies of all the magnetic states forming isospin doublets.PACS numbers:

The electric dipole excitation of various nuclei is calculated with a Random
Phase Approximation phenomenological approach. The evolution of the strength
distribution in various groups of isotopes, oxygen, calcium, zirconium and tin,
is studied. The neutron excess produces $E1$ strength in the low energy region.
Indexes to measure the collectivity of the excitation are defined. We studied
the behavior of proton and neutron transition densities to determine the
isoscalar or isovector nature of the excitation. We observed that in
medium-heavy nuclei the low-energy $E1$ excitation has characteristics rather
different that those exhibited by the giant dipole resonance. This new type of
excitation can be identified as pygmy dipole resonance.Comment: 14 pages, 12 figures, 7 table

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