The BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib represents the current frontline therapy in chronic myeloid leukemia. Because many patients develop imatinib resistance, 2 second-generation drugs, nilotinib and dasatinib, displaying increased potency against BCR-ABL were developed. To predict potential side effects and novel medical uses, we generated comprehensive drug-protein interaction profiles by chemical proteomics for
The medical and pharmaceutical communities are facing a dire need for new druggable targets, while, paradoxically, the targets of some drugs that are in clinical use or development remain elusive. Many compounds have been found to be more promiscuous than originally anticipated, which can potentially lead to side effects, but which may also open up additional medical uses. As we move toward systems biology and personalized medicine, comprehensively determining small molecule-target interaction profiles and mapping these on signaling and metabolic pathways will become increasingly necessary. Chemical proteomics is a powerful mass spectrometry-based affinity chromatography approach for identifying proteome-wide small molecule-protein interactions. Here we will provide a critical overview of the basic concepts and recent advances in chemical proteomics and review recent applications, with a particular emphasis on kinase inhibitors and natural products.
We describe a strategy to comprehend signaling pathways active in lung cancer cells and targeted by dasatinib employing chemical proteomics to identify direct interacting proteins combined with immunoaffinity purification of tyrosine phosphorylated peptides corresponding to activated tyrosine kinases. We identified nearly 40 different kinase targets of dasatinib. These include SFK members (LYN, SRC, FYN, LCK, YES), non-receptor tyrosine kinases (FRK, BRK, ACK), and receptor tyrosine kinases (Ephrin receptors, DDR1, EGFR). Using quantitative phosphoproteomics we identified peptides corresponding to autophosphorylation sites of these tyrosine kinases that are inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by dasatinib. Using drug resistant gatekeeper mutants, we show that SFK kinases, particularly SRC and FYN, as well as EGFR are relevant targets for dasatinib action. The combined mass spectrometry based approach described here provides a system-level view of dasatinib action in cancer cells and suggests both functional targets and rationale combinatorial therapeutic strategies.
Following the initial success of imatinib as frontline therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), several second-generation therapeutics have been developed with increased potency and the ability to inhibit the majority of imatinib-resistant mutations. Here, we review the current knowledge about the target specificity of the two new inhibitors nilotinib and dasatinib in comparison to imatinib, including the recent large-scale chemical proteomics screens.
The detailed molecular mechanism of action of secondgeneration BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors, including perturbed targets and pathways, should contribute to rationalized therapy in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) or in other affected diseases. Here, we characterized the target profile of the dual SRC/ABL inhibitor bosutinib employing a two-tiered approach using chemical proteomics to identify natural binders in whole cell lysates of primary CML and K562 cells in parallel to in vitro kinase assays against a large recombinant kinase panel. The combined strategy resulted in a global survey of bosutinib targets comprised of over 45 novel tyrosine and serine/ threonine kinases. We have found clear differences in the target patterns of bosutinib in primary CML cells versus the K562 cell line. A comparison of bosutinib with dasatinib across the whole kinase panel revealed overlapping, but distinct, inhibition profiles. Common among those were the SRC, ABL and TEC family kinases. Bosutinib did not inhibit KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor, but prominently targeted the apoptosis-linked STE20 kinases. Although in vivo bosutinib is inactive against ABL T315I, we found this clinically important mutant to be enzymatically inhibited in the midnanomolar range. Finally, bosutinib is the first kinase inhibitor shown to target CAMK2G, recently implicated in myeloid leukemia cell proliferation.
Dasatinib is a multitargeted drug that blocks several tyrosine kinases. Apart from its well-known antileukemic activity, the drug has attracted attention because of potential immunosuppressive and antiinflammatory effects. We report that dasatinib at 1 M completely blocks antiIgE-induced histamine release in blood basophils in healthy donors, and allergeninduced release of histamine in sensitized individuals. In addition, dasatinib inhibited Fc⑀RI-mediated release of IL-4 and IgE-mediated up-regulation of CD13, CD63, CD164, and CD203c in basophils.
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