Among the investigated scores, the Euro score yielded the highest predictive value in our patient population. For most risk factors, predictive values for morbidity were substantially different from predictive values for mortality. Therefore, development of specific morbidity risk scores may improve prediction of outcome and hospital cost. Due to the heterogeneity of morbidity events, future score systems may have to generate separate predictions for mortality and major morbidity events.
GERAADA could detect significant disease- and surgery-related risk factors for death in AADA, influencing the outcome of surgically treated AADA patients. Comatose and resuscitated patients have the poorest outcome. Cannulation sites and operative techniques did not seem to affect mortality. Short operative times are associated with better outcomes.
Little is known about the migration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Some therapeutic approaches had demonstrated that MSCs were able to regenerate injured tissues when applied from different sites of application. This implies that MSCs are not only able to migrate but also that the direction of migration is controlled. Factors that are involved in the control of the migration of MSCs are widely unknown. The migratory ability of isolated MSCs was tested in different conditions. The migratory capability was examined using Boyden chamber assay in the presence or absence of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), erythropoietin, interleukin-6, stromal cell-derived factor-␤, and vascular endothelial growth factor. bFGF in particular was able to increase the migratory activity of MSCs through activation of the Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) pathway. The results were supported by analyzing the orientation of the cytoskeleton. In the presence of a bFGF gradient, the actin filaments developed a parallelized pattern that was strongly related to the gradient. Surprisingly, the influence of bFGF was not only an attraction but also routing of MSCs. The bFGF gradient experiment showed that low concentrations of bFGF lead to an attraction of the cells, whereas higher concentrations resulted in repulsion. This ambivalent effect of bFGF provides the possibility to a purposeful routing of MSCs.
Fluid accumulation in the cardiac interstitium or myocardial edema is a common manifestation of many clinical states. Specifically, cardiac surgery includes various interventions and pathophysiological conditions that cause or worsen myocardial edema including cardiopulmonary bypass and cardioplegic arrest. Myocardial edema should be a concern for clinicians as it has been demonstrated to produce cardiac dysfunction. This article will briefly discuss the factors governing myocardial fluid balance and review the evidence of myocardial edema in various pathological conditions. In particular, myocardial microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic interactions relevant to the field of cardiac surgery will be emphasized.
Our data suggest that current clinical CPB management impacts postoperative renal function. We found that patients with normal preoperative renal function who developed postoperative ARF had longer CPB duration, lower CPB perfusion flow, and longer periods on CPB at pressures < 60 mmHg compared to patients with no post CPB ARF. However, our data do not allow us to separate these CPB-related factors from the potential influence of perioperative low cardiac output syndrome as a cause for postoperative ARF. Thus, future clinical studies are required to elucidate CPB-induced ARF and to optimize CPB management for ARF prevention.
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