Blots were performed against DDR (p53 pSer15, histone 2AX pSer139), cell survival/ cell death (AKT pThr308, cleaved PARP), and cell signaling (ERK1/2 pThr202/Tyr204) markers and controls. Actin and GAPDH served as loading controls.
Using a genome-wide approach, we asked how many transporter genes contribute to symbiotic phosphate uptake and analyzed their evolutionary conservation. Considering the sequenced rice genome at hand, only the Oryza sativa phosphate transporter (OsPT) gene OsPT11 was specifically induced during the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. This induction was confined to the root system and was tightly correlated with the degree of root colonization by Glomus intraradices. OsPT11 activation was independent of the nutritional status of the plant and phosphate availability in the rhizosphere. Moreover, infection of roots with the fungal pathogens Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium moniliforme did not activate OsPT11, corroborating the high signal specificity for OsPT11 activation in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. OsPT11 expression complemented a defect in phosphate uptake in a yeast strain mutated in its high-affinity Pi transporter (pho84), thereby confirming its function. Recently, a phosphate transporter gene in potato was shown to be induced during arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Assessment of the phylogenetic relationship of the rice and potato protein revealed that the rice is nonorthologous to the potato protein. Further, there are no structural commonalities in the promoter regions. Thus, although cytological and physiological features of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis seem to be conserved, the molecular components may differ significantly between distantly related plant species.A rbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi associate intimately with the roots of more than 80% of terrestrial plants, growing inter-and intracellularly in the root cortex. It is well documented that AM fungi enhance nutrient availability to plants, in particular, inorganic (ortho)phosphate (P i ), by forming far-reaching extraradical mycelia which operate as functional extensions of the plant root system (1, 2). In the absence of the symbiosis, P i is taken up directly by plant roots in the form of orthophosphate; however, its concentration rarely exceeds 10 M in the soil fluid (3). Plants have acquired a number of different strategies to maximize P i uptake under such P i -limiting conditions. Similar to yeast, plants explore high-and low-affinity P i -transporter systems. Although low-affinity P i transporters are constitutively expressed and operate at P i concentrations in the millimolar range, genes for high-affinity P i transport are transcriptionally induced at low P i availability and contribute to P i uptake at limiting, micro-molar concentrations (3-5). An additional set of P i transporters participates in the translocation of P i throughout the plant. Furthermore, symbiosis-mediated P i uptake probably involves a plant-encoded acquisition activity (6, 7). Two dicotyledonous high-affinity P i transporter genes have been characterized for their possible involvement in the AM symbiosis. Messenger of the tomato LePT1 gene was moderately expressed in arbusculated cortex cells (7) but was also present in epidermis, root cap, root h...
Summary• The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is arguably the most ecologically important eukaryotic symbiosis, yet it is poorly understood at the molecular level. To provide novel insights into the molecular basis of symbiosis-associated traits, we report the first genome-wide analysis of the transcriptome from Glomus intraradices DAOM 197198.• We generated a set of 25 906 nonredundant virtual transcripts (NRVTs) transcribed in germinated spores, extraradical mycelium and symbiotic roots using Sanger and 454 sequencing. NRVTs were used to construct an oligoarray for investigating gene expression.• We identified transcripts coding for the meiotic recombination machinery, as well as meiosis-specific proteins, suggesting that the lack of a known sexual cycle in G. intraradices is not a result of major deletions of genes essential for sexual reproduction and meiosis. Induced expression of genes encoding membrane transporters and small secreted proteins in intraradical mycelium, together with the lack of expression of hydrolytic enzymes acting on plant cell wall polysaccharides, are all features of G. intraradices that are shared with ectomycorrhizal symbionts and obligate biotrophic pathogens.• Our results illuminate the genetic basis of symbiosis-related traits of the most ancient lineage of plant biotrophs, advancing future research on these agriculturally and ecologically important symbionts.*These authors contributed equally to this work.
Pi acquisition of crops via arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is becoming increasingly important due to limited highgrade rock Pi reserves and a demand for environmentally sustainable agriculture. Here, we show that 70% of the overall Pi acquired by rice (Oryza sativa) is delivered via the symbiotic route. To better understand this pathway, we combined genetic, molecular, and physiological approaches to determine the specific functions of two symbiosis-specific members of the PHOSPHATE TRANSPORTER1 (PHT1) gene family from rice, ORYsa;PHT1;11 (PT11) and ORYsa;PHT1;13 (PT13). The PT11 lineage of proteins from mono-and dicotyledons is most closely related to homologs from the ancient moss, indicating an early evolutionary origin. By contrast, PT13 arose in the Poaceae, suggesting that grasses acquired a particular strategy for the acquisition of symbiotic Pi. Surprisingly, mutations in either PT11 or PT13 affected the development of the symbiosis, demonstrating that both genes are important for AM symbiosis. For symbiotic Pi uptake, however, only PT11 is necessary and sufficient. Consequently, our results demonstrate that mycorrhizal rice depends on the AM symbiosis to satisfy its Pi demands, which is mediated by a single functional Pi transporter, PT11.
Glomalean fungi induce and colonize symbiotic tissue called arbuscular mycorrhiza on the roots of most land plants. Other fungi also colonize plants but cause disease not symbiosis. Wholetranscriptome analysis using a custom-designed Affymetrix GeneChip and confirmation with real-time RT-PCR revealed 224 genes affected during arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. We compared these transcription profiles with those from rice roots that were colonized by pathogens (Magnaporthe grisea and Fusarium moniliforme). Over 40% of genes showed differential regulation caused by both the symbiotic and at least one of the pathogenic interactions. A set of genes was similarly expressed in all three associations, revealing a conserved response to fungal colonization. The responses that were shared between pathogen and symbiont infection may play a role in compatibility. Likewise, the responses that are different may cause disease. Some of the genes that respond to mycorrhizal colonization may be involved in the uptake of phosphate. Indeed, phosphate addition mimicked the effect of mycorrhiza on 8% of the tested genes. We found that 34% of the mycorrhiza-associated rice genes were also associated with mycorrhiza in dicots, revealing a conserved pattern of response between the two angiosperm classes.expression profiling ͉ Glomus ͉ Oryza sativa ͉ pathogenesis ͉ phosphate
Knowledge about signaling in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses is currently restricted to the common symbiosis (SYM) signaling pathway discovered in legumes. This pathway includes calcium as a second messenger and regulates both AM and rhizobial symbioses. Both monocotyledons and dicotyledons form symbiotic associations with AM fungi, and although they differ markedly in the organization of their root systems, the morphology of colonization is similar. To identify and dissect AM-specific signaling in rice (Oryza sativa), we developed molecular phenotyping tools based on gene expression patterns that monitor various steps of AM colonization. These tools were used to distinguish common SYMdependent and -independent signaling by examining rice mutants of selected putative legume signaling orthologs predicted to be perturbed both upstream (CASTOR and POLLUX) and downstream (CCAMK and CYCLOPS) of the central, calciumspiking signal. All four mutants displayed impaired AM interactions and altered AM-specific gene expression patterns, therefore demonstrating functional conservation of SYM signaling between distant plant species. In addition, differential gene expression patterns in the mutants provided evidence for AM-specific but SYM-independent signaling in rice and furthermore for unexpected deviations from the SYM pathway downstream of calcium spiking.
In terrestrial ecosystems, plants take up phosphate predominantly via association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We identified loss of responsiveness to AMF in the rice (Oryza sativa) mutant hebiba, reflected by the absence of physical contact and of characteristic transcriptional responses to fungal signals. Among the 26 genes deleted in hebiba, DWARF 14 LIKE is, the one responsible for loss of symbiosis . It encodes an alpha/beta-fold hydrolase, that is a component of an intracellular receptor complex involved in the detection of the smoke compound karrikin. Our finding reveals an unexpected plant recognition strategy for AMF and a previously unknown signaling link between symbiosis and plant development.
High concentrations of heavy metals (HM) in the soil have detrimental effects on ecosystems and are a risk to human health as they can enter the food chain via agricultural products or contaminated drinking water. Phytoremediation, a sustainable and inexpensive technology based on the removal of pollutants from the environment by plants, is becoming an increasingly important objective in plant research. However, as phytoremediation is a slow process, improvement of efficiency and thus increased stabilization or removal of HMs from soils is an important goal. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi provide an attractive system to advance plant-based environmental clean-up. During symbiotic interaction the hyphal network functionally extends the root system of their hosts. Thus, plants in symbiosis with AM fungi have the potential to take up HM from an enlarged soil volume. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about the contribution of the AM symbiosis to phytoremediation of heavy metals.
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