The land area of Laos is composed of a large variety of undisturbed habitats, such as high mountainous areas, huge limestone karsts and the lower Mekong Basin. Therefore, Laos is expected to have a high species diversity, especially for the land snails. However, with respect to research on malacology, Laos is probably the least well-researched area for land snail diversity in Indochina (including Laos) over the past few centuries. The handful of species lists have never been systematically revised from the colonial period to the present, so these classifications are outdated. Herein we present the first comprehensive annotated checklist with an up-to-date systematic framework of the land snail fauna in Laos based on both field investigations and literature surveys. This annotated checklist is collectively composed of 231 nominal species (62 ‘prosobranch’ and 169 heterobranches), of which 221 nominal species are illustrated. The type specimens of 143 species from several museum collections and/or 144 species of newly collected specimens are illustrated. There are 58 species recorded as new to the malacofauna of the country, and two new replacement names are proposed as Hemiplectalanxangnica Inkhavilay and Panha, nomen novum (Ariophantidae) and Chloritiskhammouanensis Inkhavilay and Panha, nomen novum (Camaenidae). Four recently described species of the genus Amphidromus from Laos, “thakhekensis”, “richgoldbergi”, “attapeuensis” and “phuonglinhae” are synonymized with previously described species. In addition, thirteen nominal species are listed as uncertain records that may or may not occur in Laos. This annotated checklist may inspire malacologists to carry on systematic research in this region.
Four new species of terrestrial earthworms from the zebrus-group in the genus Amynthas Kinberg, 1867, are described from Nan province, north Thailand: Amynthas phatubensis sp. n., from Tham Pha Tub Arboretum, Amynthas tontong sp. n., from Tontong Waterfall, Amynthas borealis sp. n., from Chaloemprakiat district, and Amynthas srinan sp. n., from Srinan National Park.After comparing with the two closely related Laos species Amynthas chandyi Hong, 2008 and Amynthas namphouinensis Hong, 2008, the four new species show clear morphological differences, and also it is confirmed that there are no previous records of the species described here. Amynthas phatubensis sp. n. is the largest (longest) sized of these earthworms and is the only species that lives in limestone habitats. The genital characters are different among them and also from the two Laotian species. Molecular systematics would be a good method for further analysis of the diversity and species boundaries in SE Asian Amynthas.
Earthworm specimens collected from various parts of Thailand were found to contain seven new species of the genus Metaphire Sims & Easton, 1972. These are M. songkhlaensis sp. n. in the octothecal pulauensis species group, M. trangensis sp. n. in the octothecal ignobilis species group, M. khaoluangensis sp. n. and M. khaochamao sp. n. in the sexthecal houlleti species group, M. doiphamon sp. n. in the sexthecal peguana species group, M. saxicalcis sp. n. in the quadrithecal planata species group, and the bithecal M. surinensis sp. n. Type material of some established species from Thailand or northern Malaysia was reinvestigated and illustrated to confirm the status of the new species and to facilitate species comparisons: M. pulauensis (Beddard, 1900), M. baruana (Stephenson, 1932), both with newly designated lectotypes, and M. planata (Gates, 1936), illustrated and redescribed.
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