Purpose: To translate and culturally adapt the Dysfunctional Voiding Symptom Score (DVSS), questionnaire into Brazilian Portuguese.
Materials and Methods:The 10-item Dysfunctional Voiding Symptom Score (DVSS) was translated into Brazilian Portuguese according to a standard methodology: translation, synthesis, back-translation, Expert Committee, and pre-testing. After the translation process the final version was pre-tested and patient responses were analyzed to identify necessary modifications. Reliability was evaluated using the test-retest method, and internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. Results: The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated in the test and retest phases. Internal consistency was found to be satisfactory, as confirmed by a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.76 for the test and 0.77 for the retest. A high degree of stability was found in the test/retest, with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.960 (p < 0.001; 95% CI: 0.943-0.972). Conclusions: The cross-cultural adaptation process of the Dysfunctional Voiding Symptom Score questionnaire to be used on Brazilian children was successfully completed following internationally accepted methodologies.
Transcutaneous parasacral electrical stimulation is well tolerated, and demonstrates short and long-term effectiveness in treating overactive bladder in children. Symptoms eventually will recur in 10% of patients.
The literature in the area of interest is sparse. Parasacral TENS has been shown to be more effective than sham in randomized trials in treating OAB. This deserves further research to elucidate the optimal parameters and the children for whom it is most useful.
The rate of hydrocele is high with the classic Palomo technique and less with the modified technique. The rate of varicocele recurrence is around 3% to 4% with both procedures. The percentage of testicular catch-up growth is variable.
ObjectiveTo evaluate the correlation between constipation and lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) and nocturnal enuresis in a population-based study.Material and methodsThis is a cross-sectional study. The criteria for inclusion were children and adolescents of between 5 and 17 years and who agreed to sign the informed consent form. The study excluded students with neurological problems or who had documented abnormalities of the urinary tract. To identify the presence and severity of LUTD, we used the Voiding Dysfunction Symptom Score (DVSS). To evaluate the presence of constipation, Rome III questionnaire was used.ResultsWe interviewed 829 children and adolescents, of which 416 (50.18%) were male. The mean (SD) age was 9.1 (±2.9) years. The overall prevalence of LUTD was 9.1%, predominantly in girls (15 versus 3.1%, p < 0.001). Constipation was found in 9.4% of boys and 12.4% of girls (p = 0.169). Constipated children were 6.8 times more likely to have LUTD than those not constipated (p < 0.001, coefficient and correlation of 0.411). Constipation was found in 8.2% of children without LUTD and in 35.2% of children with LUTD. We performed multivariate analysis to identify urinary symptoms that are independent predictors of the presence of constipation. The presence of infrequent urination (p = 0.004) and holding maneuvers (p < 0.001) were independent predictors. It was noted also noted that constipated children, according to the Rome III criteria, possess a worse DVSS (p < 0.001). Regarding the presence of nocturnal enuresis, 12.6% of children and adolescents had constipation in association with this symptom. However, this relationship was not statistically significant (p = 0.483).ConclusionConstipated children were 6.8 times more likely to have LUTD than those not constipated. Among the urinary symptoms, infrequent voiding and holding maneuvers are independent factors of urinary expressions in constipated children. Children with more severe constipation have more prominent urinary symptoms. The presence of enuresis was not associated with constipation.
Disorders of sex development (DSDs) are estimated to be prevalent in 0.1-2% of the global population, although these figures are unlikely to adequately represent non-white patients as they are largely based on studies performed in Europe and the USA. Possible causes of DSDs include disruptions to gene expression and regulation-processes that are considered essential for the development of testes and ovaries in the embryo. Gender dysphoria generally affects between 8.5-20% of individuals with DSDs, depending on the type of DSD. Patients with simple virilizing congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), as well as those with CAH and severe virilization, are less likely to have psychosexual disorders than patients with other types of DSD. Early surgery seems to be a safe option for most of these patients. Male sex assignment is an appropriate alternative in patients with Prader IV or V DSDs. Patients with 5α-reductase 2 (5α-RD2) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 (17β-HSD3) deficiencies exhibit the highest rates of gender dysphoria (incidence of up to 63%). Disorders such as ovotesticular DSD and mixed gonadal dysgenesis are relatively rare and it can be difficult to conclusively evaluate patients with these conditions. For all DSDs, it is important that investigators and authors conform to the same nomenclature and definitions to ensure that data can be reliably analysed.
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