Previous analyses have demonstrated that packaging of the adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) genome is dependent on at least seven cis-acting elements, called AI to AVII, which are located in the left-end region of the genome. These elements have different packaging efficiencies, and without AI through AV, viral DNA cannot be packaged. Here we report the identification of the cis-acting Ad5 packaging domain in vivo by using the Cre/loxP system. We found that an adenoviral DNA fragment (nt 192 to nt 358), which includes elements AI to AV, is excised by Cre recombinase and packaged into capsids. Furthermore, this mutant adenovirus replicated so efficiently by repetitive propagation that its purification by CsCI equilibrium gradient was possible. This study clarified that the region from nt 358 to nt 454 on the viral genome is sufficient for packaging. Recently, the helper-dependent adenoviral vector (HDAd) construction system has been developed for the purpose of gene therapy. This system uses a helper virus with two parallel loxP sites flanking the packaging signal. This region is eliminated by Cre-mediated excision, which prevents helper virus packaging. Our data provide useful information regarding factors affecting efficient elimination.
The authors describe a 32-year-old male in whom herpes zoster of the left upper extremity was complicated by the development of cervical myelitis. Contrast enhancement and abnormal signal intensity on T1 and T2 weighted images was seen at C1-C6 levels in the spinal cord and medulla. There was also slight enlargement of the cord at these levels. On serial MR imaging the degree of enhancement changed from marked to none with corresponding clinical improvement.
We investigated genes expression by retrograde axonal transport of replication-defective adenoviruses carrying genes for LacZ (AdLacZ) and Bcl-2 in motor neurons of transgenic mice expressing mutant human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene containing a substitution of alanine for glycine at position 93. We found that intramuscular injection of AdLacZ into the tongue of mutant SOD1 transgenic mice and their wild-type littermates at various ages results in high expression of the transgene and similar time course of expression in hypoglossal cranial nerve nuclei, suggesting no difference in the behavior of the transgene expression between the two groups. Subsequently, we employed a molecular switching cassette for Bcl-2 designed to express Bcl-2 by Cre-loxP recombination using adenoviral vectors, and examined the COS7 and primary neuronal cells with the mutant SOD1 gene. The overexpression of Bcl-2 in
Repetitive injections of the HDAd vector containing the CAR and the dystrophin expression cassette could improve the efficiency of subsequent dystrophin gene transfer to mature mdx muscle. This result suggests that our new HDAd vector will provide a novel gene therapy strategy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, raising the prospects for gene therapy of other hereditary myopathies.
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