[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to develop an assessment tool that reflects the
ankle function during the terminal stance of gait using an inertial sensor. [Participants
and Methods] Thirteen healthy males (20 limbs) participated in this study. All the
participants were required to perform five straight-line walking trials along a 10-m level
walkway. During the terminal stance phase, both the anterior-posterior and vertical
accelerations were measured with an inertial sensor mounted on the fibular head. The
Pythagorean theorem was used to calculate the acceleration vector. A three-dimensional
gait analysis system was used for movement data acquisition. All statistical analyses were
performed using IBM SPSS Statistics 24.0 for Windows. [Results] Results were obtained
using the following multiple regression equation for the estimation of ankle plantar
flexion power: Estimated Ankle Power=−4.689 + 0.269 × vertical acceleration + 0.104 × body
weight. [Conclusion] Our novel method for gait analysis using an inertial sensor can
assess the ankle power during the terminal stance phase of gait.
Decreased walking speed has been revealed to be related to many negative events. Several researchers support the importance of triceps surae function as a cause of decreased walking speed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between walking speed and plantar flexor power during the terminal stance of gait in community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly women using an inertial sensor.
One hundred thirty-six healthy female middle-aged to elderly community-dwelling women were included in this study. We measured two-step score, grip strength, walking speed and accelerometer data from which we estimated ankle power (estimated ankle power) during walking using an inertial sensor. All participants were classified into the four different age strata, fifties (50–59), sixties (60–69), seventies (70–79) and eighties (80–89). The differences in each parameter between the four age groups were compared using repeated analysis of variance and post-hoc Bonferroni corrections for multiple comparisons to establish significance. Multiple regression analysis was carried out using a stepwise method to determine the correlations with comfortable walking speed. Comfortable walking speed was considered a dependent variable.
The normalized estimated ankle power of the eighties group was significantly decreased in comparison with seventies age groups and fifties age groups (P < 0.05), but there were no significant differences in normalized estimated ankle power between the sixties and eighties age-groups. The results of stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the normalized estimated ankle power, two-step value and body weight were highly-significant partial regression coefficients (adjusted R2 = 0.57).
Purpose] The present study aimed to determine the effects of eccentric calf raise exercise, which has the characteristics of plyometric training, on the fascicle length and muscle thickness of the gastrocnemius medialis muscle and range of motion of the ankle using ultrasonography. [Participants and Methods] Twenty-one healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to the eccentric calf raise exercise group or normal calf raise exercise group. Measurements were performed before training and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks after training.[Results] In the eccentric calf raise exercise group, the fascicle length significantly increased after 6 weeks compared to that at baseline and at 3 weeks after training. The dorsiflexion angle and muscle thickness after three weeks significantly increased compared to that at baseline, but the pennation angle was not significantly different. The fascicle length, pennation angle, dorsiflexion angle, and muscle thickness showed no significant difference at all time points in the NCR group.[Conclusion] The results of this study showed that continued stretching of the gastrocnemius medialis muscle during eccentric calf raise exercise enhanced the morphological structures, such as the a fascicle length and muscle thickness. Eccentric calf raise exercise training may aid in injury prevention.
Trochanteric fractures lead to severe functional deficits and gait disorders compared to femoral neck fractures. This study aims to investigate gait parameters related to gliding between tissues (gliding) after trochanteric fracture (TF) surgery. This study implemented a cross-sectional design and was conducted amongst patients who underwent TF surgery (n = 94) approximately three weeks post-trochanteric fracture surgery. The following parameters were evaluated: (1) gliding between tissues; (2) lateral femoral pain during loading; (3) maximum gait speed; (4) stride time variability and step time asymmetry as measures of gait cycle variability; (5) double stance ratio and single stance ratio for assessment of stance phase, (6) jerk; and (7) Locomotor rehabilitation index as a measure of force changes during gait. The gliding coefficient was significantly correlated with lateral femoral pain (r = 0.517), jerk root mean square (r = −0.433), and initial contact-loading response jerk (r = −0.459). The jerk of the force change value during gait was also effective in understanding the characteristics of the gait in the initial contact-loading response in patients with trochanteric fractures. Additionally, gliding is related not only to impairments such as pain but also to disabilities such as those affecting gait.
We investigated the effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) irradiation of the infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) combined with therapeutic exercise for management of knee osteoarthritis (knee OA).[Participants and Methods] The study included 26 patients with knee OA, who were randomized into the LIPUS group (patients underwent LIPUS + therapeutic exercise) and the therapeutic exercise group (patients underwent sham LIPUS + therapeutic exercise). We measured changes in the patellar tendon-tibial angle (PTTA) and in IFP thickness, IFP gliding, and IFP echo intensity after 10 treatment sessions to determine the effects of the aforementioned interventions. We additionally recorded changes in the visual analog scale, Timed Up and Go Test, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, and Kujala scores, as well as range of motion in each group at the same end-point. [Results] Compared with patients in the therapeutic exercise group, those in the LIPUS group showed significant post-treatment improvements in PTTA, VAS, and Kujala scores, as well as in range of motion. [Conclusion] The combined use of LIPUS irradiation of the IFP and therapeutic exercise is a safe and effective modality to reduce IFP swelling, relieve pain, and improve function in patients with knee OA.
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