Breath-holding spells (BHS) are commonly seen in childhood. However, there are no case reports of BHS occurring in adolescents or young adults. We report two young adult cases and discuss the pathogensis, both physically and psychologically. BHS occurred for 1-2 minutes after hyperventilation accompanied by cyanosis in both cases. Oxygen saturation was markedly decreased. Each patient had shown distress and a regressed state psychologically. These cyanotic BHS occurred after hyperventilation, and we considered that a complex interplay of hyperventilation followed by expiratory apnea increased intrathoracic pressure and respiratory spasm. Breath-holding spells can occur beyond childhood.
Chronic abdominal pain is a common clinical problem. However, diagnosing chronic abdominal pain often requires detailed diagnostic evaluations in addition to sufficient history taking and physical examination, owing to its uncertain etiology.
We report a case of a 36-year-old man with chronic abdominal pain originating from postoperative adhesions. Postoperative adhesions are common phenomena, and abdominal surgery can cause severe abdominal pain, the source of which can be difficult to detect. Carnett’s test is useful to detect abdominal wall tenderness and to determine the affected abdominal quadrant. Incorporating its use with a detailed chronological clinical history contributes to the improvement of diagnostic accuracy. In addition to the above-mentioned information, attention to subtle imaging findings may provide greater diagnostic accuracy.
Abdominal pain induced by postoperative adhesions was reduced by laparoscopic adhesiolysis. Carnett’s test is an effective tool for evaluating pain and detecting its cause.
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Opioids are not generally deemed to have an analgesic ceiling effect on cancer pain. However, there have been occasional reports of tolerance to opioid development induced by multiple doses of fentanyl. The authors report a case of suspected tolerance to the analgesic effect of opioid, in which an increasing dose of fentanyl failed to relieve the patient's cancer pain symptoms, but opioid switching to oxycodone injections enabled a dose reduction to below the equivalent dose conversion ratio. The patient was a 60-year-old man diagnosed with pancreatic body carcinoma with multiple metastases. The base dose consisted of 12 mg/day of transdermal fentanyl patches (equivalent to 3.6 mg/day, 150 μg/h fentanyl injection), and rescue therapy consisted of 10 mg immediate-release oxycodone powders. Despite the total daily dose of fentanyl reaching 5.6 mg (equivalent to 560 mg oral morphine), the analgesic effect was inadequate; thus, an urgent adjustment was necessary. Due to the moderate dose of fentanyl, the switch to oxycodone injection was done incrementally at a daily dose equivalent to 25% of the fentanyl injection. The total dose of oxycodone was replaced approximately 53.5% of the dose of fentanyl prior to opioid switching.
BackgroundSympathetic block in the upper limb has diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic utility for disorders in the upper extremity that are associated with sympathetic disturbances. Increased skin temperature and decreased sweating are used to identify the adequacy of sympathetic block in the upper limb after stellate ganglion block (SGB). Baroreflexes elicited by postural change induce a reduction in peripheral blood flow by causing sympathetic vasoconstriction. We hypothesized that sympathetic block in the upper limb reduces the decrease in finger blood flow caused by baroreflexes stimulated by postural change from the supine to long sitting position. This study evaluated if sympathetic block of the upper limb affects the change in finger blood flow resulting from postural change. If change in finger blood flow would be kept against postural changes, it has a potential to be a new indicator of sympathetic blockade in the upper limb.MethodsSubjects were adult patients who had a check-up at the Department of Pain Management in our university hospital over 2 years and 9 months from May 2012. We executed a total of 91 SGBs in nine patients (N=9), which included those requiring treatment for pain associated with herpes zoster in seven of the patients, tinnitus in one patient and upper limb pain in one patient. We checked for the following four signs after performing SGB: Horner’s sign, brachial nerve blockade, finger blood flow measured by a laser blood flow meter and skin temperature of the thumb measured by thermography, before and after SGB in the supine position and immediately after adopting the long sitting position.ResultsWe executed a total of 91 SGBs in nine patients. Two SGBs were excluded from the analysis due to the absence of Horner’s sign. We divided 89 procedures into two groups according to elevation in skin temperature of the thumb: by over 1°C (sympathetic block group, n=62) and by <1°C (nonsympathetic block group, n=27). Finger blood flow decreased significantly just after a change in posture from the supine to long sitting position after SGB in both groups. In the sympathetic block group, the ratio of finger blood flow in the long sitting position/supine position with a change in posture significantly increased after SGB compared with before SGB (before SGB: range 0.09–0.94, median 0.53; after SGB: range 0.33–1.2, median 0.89, p<0.0001).ConclusionOur study shows that with sympathetic block in the upper limb, the ratio of finger blood flow significantly increases despite baroreflexes stimulated by postural change from the supine to long sitting position. Retention of finger blood flow against postural changes may be an indicator of sympathetic block in the upper limb after SGB or brachial plexus block.
Background and Objectives: Interstitial cystitis (IC) is characterized clinically by lower abdominal pain, pain during urination, and increased frequency of urination. Treatment of the symptoms in IC remains challenging. We report effective treatment using lumbar sympathetic block for 2 patients with IC.Case Report: A 63-year-old and 78-year-old woman were diagnosed with IC. Medical therapy with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), anticholinergics, and hydrodistention of the bladder failed to improve their symptoms. Subsequently, a continuous lumbar epidural block using 1% mepivacaine was used in these patients. A transient reduction of the symptoms in both patients was achieved. A lumbar sympathetic block with a neurolytic agent produced almost complete, and long-lasting relief of their symptoms.Conclusion: Lumbar sympathetic block using a neurolytic agent produced long-lasting pain relief in 2 patients with IC. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2001;26:271-273.
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