Landscape Vehicular Anti-Ram (LVAR) systems are a group of protective barriers, which are designed using natural materials (e.g., boulders) and have proven to both effectively protect sensitive structures against threats and be aesthetically pleasing. This paper presents two consecutive vehicular crash tests hitting the same single boulder embedded in AASHTO coarse aggregate fill. A LS-DYNA model was developed to simulate the field-scale tests, which were instrumented with high-speed cameras and pressure cells. A readily available truck model from the National Crash Analysis Center was modified and implemented in the LS-DYNA model. The boulder and surrounding soil were modeled using the Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria. The model parameters were calibrated using results from the first field-scale test with a truck traveling at 48.3 km/hr (30 mph) impacting the LVAR system. The calibrated model was then used to simulate the second field-scale test, which involved a truck traveling at 80.5 km/hr (50 mph) impacting the same LVAR system without resetting the boulder or soil. The calibrated model was able to provide the global response of the system, including the time-history of the translational displacement and rotation of the boulder, and was in good agreement with field
Trimethylamine (TMA) sensors based on metal oxide semiconductors (MOS) have drawn great attention for realtime seafood quality evaluation. However, poor selectivity and baseline drift limit the practical applications of MOS TMA sensors. Engineering core@shell heterojunction structures with accumulation and depletion layers formed at the interface is regarded as an appealing way for enhanced gas sensing performances. Herein, we design porous hollow Co 3 O 4 @ZnO cages via a facile ZIF-67@ZIF-8-derived approach for TMA sensors. These sensors demonstrate great TMA resistive sensing performance (linear response at moderate TMA concentrations (<33 ppm)), and a high sensitivity of ∼41 is observed when exposed to 33 ppm TMA, with a response/recovery time of only 3/2 s. This superior performance benefits from the Co 3 O 4 @ZnO porous hollow structure with maximum heterojunctions and high surface area. Furthermore, great capacitive TMA sensing with linear sensitivity over the full testing concentration range (0.33−66 ppm) and better baseline stability were investigated. A possible capacitive sensing mechanism of TMA polarization was proposed. For practical usage, a portable sensing prototype based on the Co 3 O 4 @ZnO sensor was fabricated, and its satisfactory sensing behavior further confirms the potential for real-time TMA detection.
The shuttle effect hinders the practical application of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries due to the poor affinity between a substrate and Li polysulfides (LiPSs) and the sluggish transition of soluble LiPSs to insoluble Li2S or elemental S. Here, we report that Ni hexatomic clusters embedded in a nitrogen-doped three-dimensional (3D) graphene framework (Ni-N/G) possess stronger interaction with soluble polysulfides than that with insoluble polysulfides. The synthetic electrocatalyst deployed in the sulfur cathode plays a multifunctional role: (i) selectively adsorbing the polysulfides dissolved in the electrolyte, (ii) expediting the sluggish liquid-solid phase transformations at the active sites as electrocatalysts, and (iii) accelerating the kinetics of the electrochemical reaction of multielectron sulfur, thereby inhibiting the dissolution of LiPSs. The constructed S@Ni-N/G cathode delivers an areal capacity of 9.43 mAh cm-2 at 0.1 C at S loading of 6.8 mg cm-2, and it exhibits a gravimetric capacity of 1104 mAh g-1 with a capacity fading rate of 0.045% per cycle over 50 cycles at 0.2 C at S loading of 2.0 mg cm-2. This work opens a rational approach to achieve the selective adsorption and expediting of polysulfide transition for the performance enhancement of Li-S batteries.
and photocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction (e-HER
and p-HER) are two promising strategies to produce green hydrogen
fuel from water. High intrinsic activity, sufficient active sites,
fast charge-transfer capacity, and good optoelectronic properties
must be taken into consideration simultaneously in pursuit of an ideal
bifunctional catalyst. Here, platinum atomic clusters embedded in
defects of TiO2 nanocrystals/graphene nanosheets (Pt–T/G)
are reported as a bifunctional catalyst for electro- and photocatalytic
hydrogen evolution reaction (e-HER and p-HER). High activity is delivered
due to the charge transfer from the other part of the catalyst to
the active center (Pt2–O4–Ti
), decreasing the activation energy of the rate-limiting
step, which is revealed by synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy,
photoelectrochemical measurements, and simulated calculations. In
regard to e-HER, it outperforms the commercial 20 wt % Pt/C catalyst
by a factor of 17.5 on Pt mass basis, allowing for a 93% reduction
in Pt loadings. In regard to p-HER, it achieves photocatalytic efficiency
(686.8 μmol h–1) without any attenuation in
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.