BackgroundThe mosquito Ae. albopictus is usually adapted to the peri-domestic environment and typically breeds outdoors. However, we observed its larvae in most containers within homes in northern peninsular Malaysia. To anticipate the epidemiological implications of this indoor-breeding, we assessed some fitness traits affecting vectorial capacity during colonization process. Specifically, we examined whether Ae. albopictus exhibits increased survival, gonotrophic activity and fecundity due to the potential increase in blood feeding opportunities.Methodology/Principal FindingsIn a series of experiments involving outdoors and indoors breeding populations, we found that Ae. albopictus lives longer in the indoor environment. We also observed increased nighttime biting activity and lifetime fecundity in indoor/domestic adapted females, although they were similar to recently colonized females in body size.Conclusion/SignificanceTaken together these data suggest that accommodation of Ae. albopictus to indoor/domestic environment may increase its lifespan, blood feeding success, nuisance and thus vectorial capacity (both in terms of increased vector-host contacts and vector population density). These changes in the breeding behavior of Ae. albopictus, a potential vector of several human pathogens including dengue viruses, require special attention.
Larvae of Aedes albopictus Skuse typically inhabit natural and artificial containers. Since these larval habitats are replenished by rainfall, Ae. albopictus may experience increased loss of immature stages in areas with high levels of rainfall. In this study, we investigated the effects of rainfall and container water level on population density, and oviposition activity of Ae. albopictus. In field and laboratory experiments, we found that rainfall resulted in the flushing of breeding habitats. Excess rain negatively impacted larval and pupal retention, especially in small habitats. When filled with water to overflowing, container habitats were significantly repellent to ovipositing females. Taken together, these data suggest that rainfall triggers population loss of Ae. albopictus and related species through a direct detrimental effect (flushing out) and an indirect effect (ovipositional repellency).
alpha-L-Rhamnosidase was extracted and purified from the cells of Pseudomonas paucimobilis FP2001 with a 19.5% yield. The purified enzyme, which was homogeneous as shown by SDS-PAGE and isoelectric focusing, had a molecular weight of 112,000 and an isoelectric point of 7.1. The enzyme activity was accelerated by Ca2+ and remained stable for several months when stored at -20 C. The optimum pH was 7.8; the optimum temperature was 45 degrees C. The Km, V(max) and k(cat) for p-nitrophenyl alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside were 1.18 mM, 92.4 microM x min(-1) and 117,000 x min(-1), respectively. Examination of the substrate specificity using various synthetic and natural L-rhamnosyl glycosides showed that this enzyme had a relatively broader substrate specificity than those reported so far.
BackgroundThe domestic dengue vector Aedes aegypti mosquitoes breed in indoor containers. However, in northern peninsular Malaysia, they show equal preference for breeding in both indoor and outdoor habitats. To evaluate the epidemiological implications of this peridomestic adaptation, we examined whether Ae. aegypti exhibits decreased survival, gonotrophic activity, and fecundity due to lack of host availability and the changing breeding behavior.Methodology/Principal FindingsThis yearlong field surveillance identified Ae. aegypti breeding in outdoor containers on an enormous scale. Through a sequence of experiments incorporating outdoors and indoors adapting as well as adapted populations, we observed that indoors provided better environment for the survival of Ae. aegypti and the observed death patterns could be explained on the basis of a difference in body size. The duration of gonotrophic period was much shorter in large-bodied females. Fecundity tended to be greater in indoor acclimated females. We also found increased tendency to multiple feeding in outdoors adapted females, which were smaller in size compared to their outdoors breeding counterparts.Conclusion/SignificanceThe data presented here suggest that acclimatization of Ae. aegypti to the outdoor environment may not decrease its lifespan or gonotrophic activity but rather increase breeding opportunities (increased number of discarded containers outdoors), the rate of larval development, but small body sizes at emergence. Size is likely to be correlated with disease transmission. In general, small size in Aedes females will favor increased blood-feeding frequency resulting in higher population sizes and disease occurrence.
In this study, we isolated and characterized an insect nidovirus from the mosquito Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) in Vietnam, as an additional member of the new family Mesoniviridae in the order Nidovirales. The virus, designated "Dak Nong virus (DKNV)," shared many characteristics with Cavally virus and Nam Dinh virus, which have also been discovered recently in mosquitoes, and these viruses should be considered members of a single virus species, Alphamesonivirus 1. DKNV grew in cultured mosquito cells but could not replicate in the cultured vertebrate cells tested. N-terminal sequencing of the DKNV structural proteins revealed two posttranslational cleavage sites in the spike glycoprotein precursor. DKNV is assumed to be a new member of the species Alphamesonivirus 1, and the current study provides further understanding of viruses belonging to the new family Mesoniviridae.
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