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This work documents the first version of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) new EnergyExascale Earth System Model (E3SMv1). We focus on the standard resolution of the fully coupled physical model designed to address DOE mission-relevant water cycle questions. Its components include atmosphere and land (110-km grid spacing), ocean and sea ice (60 km in the midlatitudes and 30 km at the equator and poles), and river transport (55 km) models. This base configuration will also serve as a foundation for additional configurations exploring higher horizontal resolution as well as augmented capabilities in the form of biogeochemistry and cryosphere configurations. The performance of E3SMv1 is evaluated by means of a standard set of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Characterization of Klima simulations consisting of a long preindustrial control, historical simulations (ensembles of fully coupled and prescribed SSTs) as well as idealized CO 2 forcing simulations. The model performs well overall with biases typical of other CMIP-class models, although the simulated Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation is weaker than many CMIP-class models. While the E3SMv1 historical ensemble captures the bulk of the observed warming between preindustrial (1850) and present day, the trajectory of the warming diverges from observations in the Key Points: • This work documents E3SMv1, the first version of the U.S. DOE Energy Exascale Earth System Model • The performance of E3SMv1 is documented with a set of standard CMIP6 DECK and historical simulations comprising nearly 3,000 years • E3SMv1 has a high equilibrium climate sensitivity (5.3 K) and strong aerosol-related effective radiative forcing (-1.65 W/m 2 ) Correspondence to: Chris Golaz, golaz1@llnl.gov Citation: Golaz, J.-C., Caldwell, P. M., Van Roekel, L. P., Petersen, M. R., Tang, Q., Wolfe, J. D., et al. (2019). The DOE E3SM coupled model version 1: Overview and evaluation at standard resolution. second half of the twentieth century with a period of delayed warming followed by an excessive warming trend. Using a two-layer energy balance model, we attribute this divergence to the model's strong aerosol-related effective radiative forcing (ERF ari+aci = −1.65 W/m 2 ) and high equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS = 5.3 K). Plain Language Summary The U.S. Department of Energy funded the development of a new state-of-the-art Earth system model for research and applications relevant to its mission. The Energy Exascale Earth System Model version 1 (E3SMv1) consists of five interacting components for the global atmosphere, land surface, ocean, sea ice, and rivers. Three of these components (ocean, sea ice, and river) are new and have not been coupled into an Earth system model previously. The atmosphere and land surface components were created by extending existing components part of the Community Earth System Model, Version 1. E3SMv1's capabilities are demonstrated by performing a set of standardized simulation experiments described by...

A numerical scheme applicable to arbitrarily structured C-grids is presented for the nonlinear shallow-water equations. By discretizing the vector invariant form of the momentum equation, the relationship between the nonlinear Coriolis force and the potential vorticity flux can be used to guarantee that mass, velocity and potential vorticity evolve in a consistent and compatible manner. Underpinning the consistency and compatibility of the discrete system is the construction of an auxiliary thickness equation that is staggered from the primary thickness equation and collocated with the vorticity field. The numerical scheme also exhibits conservation of total energy to within time-truncation error. Simulations of the standard shallow-water test cases confirm the analysis and show convergence rates between 1 st -and 2 nd -order accuracy when discretizing the system with quasi-uniform spherical Voronoi diagrams. The numerical method is applicable to a wide class of meshes, including latitude-longitude grids, Voronoi diagrams, Delaunay triangulations and conformally-mapped cubed-sphere meshes.

The formulation of a fully compressible nonhydrostatic atmospheric model called the Model for Prediction Across Scales-Atmosphere (MPAS-A) is described. The solver is discretized using centroidal Voronoi meshes and a C-grid staggering of the prognostic variables, and it incorporates a split-explicit time-integration technique used in many existing nonhydrostatic meso-and cloud-scale models. MPAS can be applied to the globe, over limited areas of the globe, and on Cartesian planes. The Voronoi meshes are unstructured grids that permit variable horizontal resolution. These meshes allow for applications beyond uniform-resolution NWP and climate prediction, in particular allowing embedded high-resolution regions to be used for regional NWP and regional climate applications. The rationales for aspects of this formulation are discussed, and results from tests for nonhydrostatic flows on Cartesian planes and for large-scale flow on the sphere are presented. The results indicate that the solver is as accurate as existing nonhydrostatic solvers for nonhydrostatic-scale flows, and has accuracy comparable to existing global models using icosahedral (hexagonal) meshes for large-scale flows in idealized tests. Preliminary full-physics forecast results indicate that the solver formulation is robust and that the variable-resolution-mesh solutions are well resolved and exhibit no obvious problems in the mesh-transition zones.

a b s t r a c tA C-grid staggering, in which the mass variable is stored at cell centers and the normal velocity component is stored at cell faces (or edges in two dimensions) is attractive for atmospheric modeling since it enables a relatively accurate representation of fast wave modes. However, the discretization of the Coriolis terms is non-trivial. For constant Coriolis parameter, the linearized shallow water equations support geostrophic modes: stationary solutions in geostrophic balance. A naive discretization of the Coriolis terms can cause geostrophic modes to become non-stationary, causing unphysical behaviour of numerical solutions. Recent work has shown how to discretize the Coriolis terms on a planar regular hexagonal grid to ensure that geostrophic modes are stationary while the Coriolis terms remain energy conserving. In this paper this result is extended to arbitrarily structured C-grids. An explicit formula is given for constructing an appropriate discretization of the Coriolis terms. The general formula is illustrated by showing that it recovers previously known results for the planar regular hexagonal C-grid and the spherical longitude-latitude C-grid. Numerical calculation confirms that the scheme does indeed give stationary geostrophic modes for the hexagonal-pentagonal and triangular geodesic C-grids on the sphere.

Results from aquaplanet experiments performed using the Model for Prediction across Scales (MPAS) hydrostatic dynamical core implemented within the Department of Energy (DOE)-NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) are presented. MPAS is an unstructured-grid approach to climate system modeling that supports both quasi-uniform and variable-resolution meshing of the sphere based on conforming grids. Using quasi-uniform simulations at resolutions of 30, 60, 120, and 240 km, the authors evaluate the performance of CAM-MPAS via its kinetic energy spectra, general circulation, and precipitation characteristics. By analyzing an additional variable-resolution simulation with grid spacing that varies from 30 km in a spherical, continental-sized equatorial region to 240 km elsewhere, the CAM-MPAS's potential for use as a regional climate simulation tool is explored.Similar to other quasi-uniform aquaplanet simulations, tropical precipitation increases with resolution, indicating the resolution sensitivity of the physical parameterizations. Comparison with the finite volume (FV) dynamical core suggests a weaker tropical circulation in the CAM-MPAS simulations, which is evident in reduced tropical precipitation and a weaker Hadley circulation. In the variable-resolution simulation, the kinetic energy spectrum within the high-resolution region closely resembles the quasi-uniform 30-km simulation, indicating a robust simulation of the fluid dynamics. As suggested by the quasi-uniform simulations, the CAM4 physics behave differently in the high and low resolution regions. A positive precipitation anomaly occurs on the western edge of the high-resolution region, exciting a Gill-type response; this zonal asymmetry represents the errors incurred in a variable resolution setting. When paired with a multiresolution mesh, the aquaplanet test case offers an exceptional opportunity to examine the response of physical parameterizations to grid resolution. * Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Report LLNL-JRNL-538911.

The vertical coordinate of the Model for Prediction Across Scales-Ocean (MPAS-Ocean) uses the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method, which offers a variety of configurations. When fully Eulerian, the vertical coordinate is fixed like a z-level ocean model; when fully Lagrangian there is no vertical transport through the interfaces so that the mesh moves with the fluid; additional options for vertical coordinates exist between these two extremes, including z-star, z-tilde, sigma, and isopycnal coordinates. Here we evaluate spurious diapycnal mixing in MPAS-Ocean in several idealized test cases as well as real-world domains with full bathymetry. Mixing data is compared to several other ocean models, including the Parallel Ocean Program (POP) z-level and z-star formulations. In three-dimensional domains, MPAS-Ocean has lower spurious mixing that other ocean models. A series of simulations show that this is likely due to MPAS-Ocean's hexagon-type horizontal grid cells combined with a flux-corrected transport tracer advection scheme designed for these unstructured meshes. The frequency-filtered vertical coordinate of Leclair and Madec (2011) (also called z-tilde) has been implemented and analyzed in MPAS-Ocean. This addition allows low-frequency vertical transport to pass through the vertical interface in an Eulerian manner, while high-frequency vertical oscillations, such as internal gravity waves, are treated in a Lagrangian manner.

During the next decade and beyond, climate system models will be challenged to resolve scales and processes that are far beyond their current scope. Each climate system component has its prototypical example of an unresolved process that may strongly influence the global climate system, ranging from eddy activity within ocean models, to ice streams within ice sheet models, to surface hydrological processes within land system models, to cloud processes within atmosphere models. These new demands will almost certainly result in the develop of multiresolution schemes that are able, at least regionally, to faithfully simulate these fine-scale processes. Spherical centroidal Voronoi tessellations (SCVTs) offer one potential path toward the development of a robust, multiresolution climate system model components. SCVTs allow for the generation of highquality Voronoi diagrams and Delaunay triangulations Responsible Editor: Eric Deleersnijder LA-UR-08-05303. T. Ringler (B) through the use of an intuitive, user-defined density function. In each of the examples provided, this method results in high-quality meshes where the quality measures are guaranteed to improve as the number of nodes is increased. Real-world examples are developed for the Greenland ice sheet and the North Atlantic ocean.Idealized examples are developed for ocean-ice shelf interaction and for regional atmospheric modeling. In addition to defining, developing, and exhibiting SCVTs, we pair this mesh generation technique with a previously developed finite-volume method. Our numerical example is based on the nonlinear, shallowwater equations spanning the entire surface of the sphere. This example is used to elucidate both the potential benefits of this multiresolution method and the challenges ahead.

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