A NUMBER OF examination systems have been developed to record the oral hygiene status of an individual. Most systems use either selected teeth or the highest score for a group of teeth within a segment as the basis for their scores. When used for epidemiological studies or for evaluating the results of treatment in a study group these methods yield useful information. A numerical score, however, is of limited value for the clinician treating an individual patient. He is concerned with the locations where plaque accumulates and in the patient's progress in learning how to effectively clean these surfaces.The Plaque Control Record was developed to give the therapist, hygienist, or dental educator a simple method of recording the presence of plaque on individual tooth surfaces (mesial, distal, facial, lingual). The form also allows the patient to visualize his own progress in learning plaque control. This seems to have a motivating effect on patients.At the initial control appointment a suitable disclosing solution such as Bismarck Brown is painted on all exposed tooth surfaces. After the patient has rinsed, the operator, using an explorer or the tip of a probe, examines each stained surface for soft accumulations at the dentogingival junction. When found, they are recorded by making a dash in the appropriate spaces on the record form. Those surfaces which have soft accumulations not at the dentogingival junction are not recorded. Figure 1A shows a form filled out at the patient's first appointment for learning plaque control. No attempt is made to differentiate between varying amounts of plaque on the tooth surfaces. Scoring the extent of accumulations requires more decision making, prolongs the procedure and does not add appreciably to its clinical usefulness. After all teeth are examined and scored, an index can be derived by dividing the number of plaquecontaining surfaces by the total number of available surfaces. The same procedure is carried out at subsequent appointments to determine the patient's progress in learning and carrying out the prescribed oral hygiene procedures. When an assistant records the findings of the examiner, the initial examination and recording can be completed in approximately five to six minutes. By FIGURE 1A. Plaque accumulations recorded at initial control appointment. FIGURE 1B. Plaque accumulations recorded at fifth session. the time of the third or fourth assessment, the number of surfaces with plaque accumulations is normally reduced to the point that the procedure can be carried out in three to four minutes. Seldom do you find a dentition completely free of plaque. Our goal in teaching oral hygiene procedures is to reduce plaque accumulations until they are found on 10% or less of the available tooth surfaces. The amount of plaque found on these remaining surfaces is usually markedly reduced by this time. Surgical therapy is not initiated until the patient reaches the approximate 10% level. If, after three or four appointments, it is seen that the patient is not motivated to ca...
By helping to promote the future integration of genetic testing in health care delivery, including clinical decision making, the MVP is designed to contribute to the development of precision medicine.
Intensive renal support in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury did not decrease mortality, improve recovery of kidney function, or reduce the rate of nonrenal organ failure as compared with less-intensive therapy involving a defined dose of intermittent hemodialysis three times per week and continuous renal-replacement therapy at 20 ml per kilogram per hour. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00076219.)
Although the significance of various prognostic factors, such as tumor size and mitotic index (MI), has been well established for smooth-muscle tumors of the stomach, the significance of these factors in other sites is less well defined. We studied 1004 patients with gastrointestinal smooth-muscle tumors for whom vital status could be determined. The average MI and tumor size varied significantly among the five major sites examined: esophagus (53 cases), stomach (524 cases), small bowel 252 cases), colon/rectum (108 cases), and omentum/mesentery/peritoneum (67 cases). There was a significant difference in site-specific survival (p = 0.001), with 10-year survival varying between 50% and 70%. Multivariate analysis demonstrated tumor location (p = 0.0320), size (p = 0.0003), MI (p < 0.0001), and patient age (p < 0.0001) to each carry independent prognostic value. The significance of MI was highly site dependent. Separation of survival curves for the stomach, using a threshold for analysis of either 5 or 10 mitotic figures/50 high-power fields, was very good. In contrast, small-bowel tumors showed little separation between survival curves, regardless of whether a threshold of 1, 5, or 10 mitotic figures MF/50 high-power fields was used to distinguish groups. In no site were tumor size and MI alone sufficient to provide an accurate long-term prediction of prognosis. Although tumor location, size, MI, and age have independent value in predicting the prognosis of patients with gastrointestinal smooth-muscle tumors, better methods are still required to accurately predict clinical course.
SUMMARY How do neurons develop, control, and maintain their electrical signaling properties in spite of ongoing protein turnover and perturbations to activity? From generic assumptions about the molecular biology underlying channel expression, we derive a simple model and show how it encodes an “activity set point” in single neurons. The model generates diverse self-regulating cell types and relates correlations in conductance expression observed in vivo to underlying channel expression rates. Synaptic as well as intrinsic conductances can be regulated to make a self-assembling central pattern generator network; thus, network-level homeostasis can emerge from cell-autonomous regulation rules. Finally, we demonstrate that the outcome of homeostatic regulation depends on the complement of ion channels expressed in cells: in some cases, loss of specific ion channels can be compensated; in others, the homeostatic mechanism itself causes pathological loss of function.
Pulmonary blastoma is a rare lung tumor composed of immature mesenchyme and/or epithelium that morphologically mimics embryonal pulmonary structure. The prognosis of these tumors is poor, and the clinical course is not readily predicted from histologic appearance. In this report, the clinical, gross, microscopic, and immunopathologic features of 52 cases are described, and prognostically important correlates are determined. Twenty-eight patients were women, and 24 were men. There was a unimodal age peak in the fourth decade; only two patients were younger than 10 years old, and both had biphasic blastomas. Forty-one percent of patients were asymptomatic. Chest radiography typically showed a peripheral or midlung mass without predilection for any lobe. Microscopically, tumors could be divided into two classes: those composed solely of malignant glands of embryonal appearance (well-differentiated fetal adenocarcinomas [WDFA], 28 cases) and those with a biphasic appearance (24 cases). The malignant epithelium contained cytokeratin, carcinoembryonic antigen, milk fat globulin, and often chromogranin; vimentin, actin, and less frequently desmin and myoglobin were present in malignant stromal cells. More often WDFA was a smaller tumor (less than 5 cm) than biphasic tumors (P less than or equal to 0.001). It was more likely to be asymptomatic (P less than or equal to 0.001), and it was less likely to show pleural effusion by chest radiography (P less than or equal to 0.01) or giant or bizarre tumor cells (P less than or equal to 0.001) or frequent (greater than or equal to 30 mitoses/10 high-power fields) mitoses in the microscopic sections (P less than or equal to 0.01). Only 14% of patients with WDFA died of their tumor; 52% of patients with biphasic tumors died (mean follow-up, 97 months and 49 months, respectively). For patients with WDFA, the presence of thoracic adenopathy by chest radiography (P less than or equal to 0.001) and metastasis at initial presentation (P less than or equal to 0.001), followed by tumor recurrence (P less than or equal to 0.01), were the factors most highly correlated with poor prognosis. For patients with biphasic tumors, tumor recurrence (P less than or equal to 0.001) was the most significant indicator of poor prognosis, followed by metastasis at initial presentation (P less than or equal to 0.05) and gross size of the tumor (greater than or equal to 5 cm) (P less than or equal to 0.05). These findings support the idea that histologic class and gross and clinical findings can be of prognostic value in pulmonary blastoma.
Neuromodulation underlies many behavioral states and has been extensively studied in small circuits. This has allowed the systematic exploration of how neuromodulatory substances and the neurons that release them can influence circuit function. The physiological state of a network and its level of activity can have profound effects on how the modulators act, a phenomenon known as state dependence. We provide insights from experiments and computational work that show how state dependence can arise and the consequences it can have for cellular and circuit function. These observations pose a general unsolved question that is relevant to all nervous systems: How is robust modulation achieved in spite of animal-to-animal variability and degenerate, nonlinear mechanisms for the production of neuronal and network activity?
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