Objective In orthopedic joint injection, the most frequently used local anesthetics are ropivacaine, bupivacaine, and 1% or 2% lidocaine. The aim of this study was to examine effects of these various anesthetics on the viability of human chondrocytes. Our hypothesis was that all local anesthetics tested damage human chondrocytes in vitro. Methods Primary human chondrocytes were isolated and cultured from 6 donated human knee joints (mean age of donors 61.2 years). Local anesthetics were added to these cultures. Toxicity analysis was performed by visualization of cell structure using light microscopy. Determination of vital chondrocytes was performed by use of a Casy cell counter. Chondrocytes' cell death was examined by fluorescence microscopy and an XTT ELISA assay. Results Light microscope and fluorescence microscope data revealed a defect cell structure and increased number of dead cells after addition of 1% or 2% lidocaine and bupivacaine but not ropivacaine. We were able to show an increased level of XTT activity after treatment with bupivacaine, 2% lidocaine or ropivacaine. The count of vital chondrocytes was significantly decreased after treatment with bupivacaine, 1% or 2% lidocaine, and ropivacaine. Conclusions The data show that treatment with local anesthetics induces cell damage of human chondrocytes in vitro. Ropivacaine seems to be a local anesthetic with the lowest toxic potential on human chondrocytes, a feature that may favor its preference for use in joint injection.
the present paper is concerned with the investigation of the phenomenon of long-term bone remodelling on cementless hip replacements. changes in bone density in the periprosthetic region around the stem, measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), were used as a measure of the osseous adaptation reaction. A postoperative follow-up of the use of four different types of prostheses of varying design after on average 13.3 (11.4-14.5) years. Specifically, the prostheses assessed in this study were the CLS/Spotorno stem with the Allofit cup by Zimmer, the Vision 2000 stem with the Duraloc cup by Depuy Synthes, the Alphafit stem with the AlphaLock cup by corin and the Mayo stem with the trilogy cup by Zimmer. for the DXA measurement, the femur was divided into the zones suggested by Gruen et al. On the femur, there was a significant reduction in bone mineral density (BMD) in the proximal Region Of Interest (ROI) 1 (p = 0.003) and 7 (p < 0.001), whilst there was a significant increase in ROI 4 (p = 0.03). A greater degree of bone atrophy was seen in patients aged 60 years and older and in female patients. A remarkable finding when comparing the stems was a significantly greater reduction in BMD in ROI 6 (p = 0.003) in the case of the Vision 2000 stem and a markedly, but not statistically significantly smaller reduction in BMD in ROI 7 (p = 0.18) in the case of the short-stem Mayo-type prosthesis. the best clinical results were found with the use of the latter. the investigations provide a starting point for establishing a differential indication in the choice of prosthesis types, depending on age and sex, the use of short-stem prostheses, as well as the administration of boneeffective drugs for the prevention of stress shielding.
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